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Sanchez J.,University of the Balearic Islands | Priego T.,University of the Balearic Islands | Pico C.,University of the Balearic Islands | Ahrens W.,University of Bremen | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2012

Background: IDEFICS (Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-Induced Health Effects in Children and Infants Project) is a European multicenter study on childhood obesity. One of its goals is to define early biomarkers of risk associated with obesity and its comorbid conditions. Objective: We considered blood cells as a new potential source of transcriptional biomarkers for these metabolic disorders and examined whether blood cell mRNA levels of some selected genes (LEPR, INSR, CPT1A, SLC27A2, UCP2, FASN, and PPARα) were altered in overweight children and whether their expression levels could be defined as markers of the insulin-resistant or dyslipidemic state associated with overweight. Design: Blood samples were obtained from 306 normal-weight and overweight children, aged 2-9 yr, from eight different European countries. Whole-blood mRNA levels were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. Results: LEPR, INSR, and CPT1A mRNA levels were higher in overweight compared with normal-weight children (the two latter only in males), whereas SLC27A2 mRNA levels were lower in overweight children. Significant associations were also found between expression levels of LEPR, INSR, CPT1A, SLC27A2, FASN, PPARα, and different parameters, including body mass index, homeostasis model assessment index, and plasma triglycerides and cholesterol levels. These associations showed that high expression levels of CPT1A, SLC27A2, INSR, FASN, or PPARα may be indicative of a lower risk for the insulin-resistant or dyslipidemic state associated with obesity, whereas low LEPR mRNA levels appear as a marker of high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, independently of body mass index. Conclusions: These findings point toward the possibility of using the expression levels of these genes in blood cells as markers of metabolic status and can potentially provide an early warning of a future disorder. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society. Source


Priego T.,University of the Balearic Islands | Sanchez J.,University of the Balearic Islands | Pico C.,University of the Balearic Islands | Ahrens W.,Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology BIPS | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2015

Context: New types of dietary exposure biomarkers are needed to implement effective strategies for obesity prevention in children. Of special interest are biomarkers of consumption of food rich in simple sugars and fat because their intake has been associated with obesity development. Peripheral blood cells (PBCs) represent a promising new tool for identifying novel, transcript-based biomarkers. Objective: This study aimed to study potential associations between the transcripts of taste receptor type 1 member 3 (TAS1R3) and urocortin II (UCN2) genes in PBCs and the frequency of sugary and fatty food consumption in children. Design, Setting, and Participants: Four hundred sixty-three children from the IDEFICS cohort were selected to include a similar number of boys and girls, both normal-weight and overweight, belonging to eight European countries. MainOutcomeMeasures: Anthropometric parameters (measured at baselineandin a subset of 193 children after 2 years), food consumption frequency and transcript levels of TAS1R3 and UCN2 genes in PBCs were measured. Results: Children with low-frequency consumption of sugary foods displayed higher TAS1R3 expression levels with respect to those with intermediate or high frequency. In turn, children with high-frequency consumption of fatty foods showed lower UCN2 expression levels with respect to those with low or intermediate frequency. Moreover, transcripts of TAS1R3 were related with body mass index and fat-mass changesaftera2-yearfollow-upperiod,withlowexpressionlevelsofthisgenebeingrelatedwithincreased fat accumulation over time. Conclusion: The transcripts of TAS1R3 and UCN2 in PBCs may be considered potential biomarkers of consumption of sugary and fatty food, respectively, to complement data of food-intake questionnaires. Copyright © 2015 by the Endocrine Society. Source


Priego T.,University of the Balearic Islands | Sanchez J.,University of the Balearic Islands | Pico C.,University of the Balearic Islands | Ahrens W.,CIBER ISCIII | And 14 more authors.
Pediatric Obesity | Year: 2014

What is already known about this subject The expression of specific genes in peripheral blood cells (PBCs) may be used as biomarkers of the metabolic status. High levels of expression of CPT1A, SLC27A2, INSR, LEPR, FASN and PPARα in PBCs are indicative of a lower risk for the insulin resistant or dyslipidaemic state associated with obesity in children. Breastfeeding seems to confer protective effects against obesity and its related metabolic problems. What this study adds Children who had been breastfed showed higher expression levels of SLC27A2, FASN, PPARα and INSR in PBCs compared with formula-fed subjects. The relationship of the PBC transcript levels of SLC27A2, INSR, FASN and PPARα with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia may be dependent on the type of infant feeding (breast vs. formula). The transcript levels of the mentioned biomarkers could be useful to distinguish the formula-fed children who are at higher risk of metabolic alterations. Background Blood-cell transcripts have showed to be good biomarkers of metabolic alterations and their use in early detection and prevention of future disorders is promising. Objective This study aimed to examine the relation between previously proposed transcriptional biomarkers of metabolic health (SLC27A2, CPT1A, FASN, PPARα, INSR, LEPR) in peripheral blood cells and the type of infant feeding in a subset of children from the IDEFICS (Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-Induced Health Effects in Children and Infants) cohort. Subjects A total of 237 children aged 2-9 years from eight European countries were studied. Results Breastfed children showed higher expression levels of SLC27A2, FASN, PPARα and INSR, and lower risk of being overweight and of having high plasma triglyceride levels vs. formula-fed children. Besides, overweight formula-fed children presented higher HOMA-index than overweight breastfed children (1.90 vs. 1.62); however, this negative effect was absent in formula-fed children with high expression of SLC27A2. Moreover, formula-fed children with low expression of SLC27A2, FASN, PPARα and INSR presented higher triglyceride levels than subjects with high expression of these genes (77.7 mg dL-1 vs. 44.8 mg dL-1). This difference was absent in breastfed children. Conclusions Protective effects of breastfeeding are reflected in higher expression levels of SLC27A2, FASN, PPARα and INSR in blood cells. These biomarkers may also serve to discriminate the formula-fed children that are at higher risk of metabolic alterations. © 2014 The Authors. Source

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