Odinot G.,Research and Documentation Center |
Memon A.,Royal Holloway, University of London |
La Rooy D.,University of Dundee |
Millen A.,University of Portsmouth
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Eyewitnesses to a filmed event were interviewed twice using a Cognitive Interview to examine the effects of variations in delay between the repeated interviews (immediately & 2 days; immediately & 7 days; 7 & 9 days) and the identity of the interviewers (same or different across the two repeated interviews). Hypermnesia (an increase in total amount of information recalled in the repeated interview) occurred without any decrease in the overall accuracy. Reminiscence (the recall of new information in the repeated interview) was also found in all conditions but was least apparent in the longest delay condition, and came with little cost to the overall accuracy of information gathered. The number of errors, increased across the interviews, but the relative accuracy of participants' responses was unaffected. However, when accuracy was calculated based on all unique details provided across both interviews and compared to the accuracy of recall in just the first interview it was found to be slightly lower. The identity of the interviewer (whether the same or different across interviews) had no effects on the number of correct details. There was an increase in recall of new details with little cost to the overall accuracy of information gathered. Importantly, these results suggest that witnesses are unlikely to report everything they remember during a single Cognitive Interview, however exhaustive, and a second opportunity to recall information about the events in question may provide investigators with additional information. © 2013 Odinot et al.
Molleman T.,Research and Documentation Center |
Van Ginneken E.F.J.C.,Liverpool Hope University
International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology | Year: 2015
Prisons worldwide operate under crowded conditions, in which prisoners are forced to share a cell. Few studies have looked at the relationship between cell sharing and the quality of prison life in Europe. This study aims to fill this gap with a multilevel analysis on the link between cell sharing and quality of prison life, using results from a Dutch prisoner survey. Findings show that cell sharing is associated with lower perceived prison quality, which is partially mediated by reduced quality of staff-prisoner relationships. Cell sharing thus undermines the Dutch penological philosophy, which considers staff-prisoner relationships to be at the heart of prisoner treatment and rehabilitation. It is recommended that prisoners are held in single rather than double cells. ©The Author(s) 2014.
van der Giessen M.,Erasmus University Rotterdam |
van Ooyen-Houben M.M.J.,Research and Documentation Center |
Moolenaar D.E.G.,Research and Documentation Center
International Journal of Drug Policy | Year: 2016
Background: Quantifying an illegal phenomenon like a drug market is inherently complex due to its hidden nature and the limited availability of reliable information. This article presents findings from a recent estimate of the production, consumption and export of Dutch cannabis and discusses the opportunities provided by, and limitations of, mathematical models for estimating the illegal cannabis market. Methods: The data collection consisted of a comprehensive literature study, secondary analyses on data from available registrations (2012-2014) and previous studies, and expert opinion. The cannabis market was quantified with several mathematical models. The data analysis included a Monte Carlo simulation to come to a 95% interval estimate (IE) and a sensitivity analysis to identify the most influential indicators. Results: The annual production of Dutch cannabis was estimated to be between 171 and 965. tons (95% IE of 271-613. tons). The consumption was estimated to be between 28 and 119. tons, depending on the inclusion or exclusion of non-residents (95% IE of 51-78. tons or 32-49. tons respectively). The export was estimated to be between 53 and 937. tons (95% IE of 206-549. tons or 231-573. tons, respectively). Conclusion: Mathematical models are valuable tools for the systematic assessment of the size of illegal markets and determining the uncertainty inherent in the estimates. The estimates required the use of many assumptions and the availability of reliable indicators was limited. This uncertainty is reflected in the wide ranges of the estimates. The estimates are sensitive to 10 of the 45 indicators. These 10 account for 86-93% of the variation found. Further research should focus on improving the variables and the independence of the mathematical models. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Zuiderwijk A.,Technical University of Delft |
Janssen M.,Technical University of Delft |
Choenni S.,Research and Documentation Center |
Meijer R.,Research and Documentation Center
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy | Year: 2014
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to derive design principles for improving the open data publishing process of public organizations. Although governments create large amounts of data, the publication of open data is often cumbersome and there are no standard procedures and processes for opening data, blocking the easy publication of government data. Design/methodology/approach: Action design research (ADR) was used to derive design principles. The literature was used as a foundation, and discussion sessions with civil servants were used to evaluate the usefulness of the principles. Findings: Barriers preventing easy and low-cost publication of open data were identified and connected to design principles, which can be used to guide the design of an open data publishing process. Five new principles are: start thinking about the opening of data at the beginning of the process; develop guidelines, especially about privacy and policy sensitivity of data; provide decision support by integrating insight in the activities of other actors involved in the publishing process; make data publication an integral, well-defined and standardized part of daily procedures and routines; and monitor how the published data are reused. Research limitations/implications: The principles are derived using ADR in a single case. A next step can be to investigate multiple comparative case studies and detail the principles further. We recommend using these principles to develop a reference architecture. Practical implications: The design principles can be used by public organizations to improve their open data publishing processes. The design principles are derived from practice and discussed with practitioners. The discussions showed that the principles could improve the publication process. Social implications: Decreasing the barriers for publishing open government data could result in the publication of more open data. These open data can then be used to stimulate various public values, such as transparency, accountability, innovation, economic growth and informed decision- and policymaking. Originality/value: Publishing data by public organizations is a complex and ill-understood activity. The lack of suitable business processes and the unclear division of responsibilities block publication of open data. This paper contributes to the literature by presenting design principles which can be used to improve the open data publishing process of public sector organizations. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Kruisbergen E.W.,Research and Documentation Center
British Journal of Criminology | Year: 2011
This article describes and analyses the implementation and results of undercover operations in one country (the Netherlands). First, we examine and analyse the main assumptions underlying academic and legislative discourses relating both to the regulation and control of undercover operations and to the kind of results the operations may produce. Second, we analyse documentation and interviews relating to all 89 Dutch criminal investigations in 2004 in which undercover teams were consulted. © The Author 2011.
Van Koppen M.V.,Research and Documentation Center
British Journal of Criminology | Year: 2010
This paper investigates criminal trajectories of individuals who are involved in organized crime. A semiparametric group-model is used to cluster 854 individuals into groups with similar developmental trajectories. The most important findings of the study relate to the substantial group of adult-onset offenders (40 per cent) and a group without any previous criminal records (19 per cent), next to a group of early starters (11 per cent) and a group of persisters (30 per cent). Up to date, no trajectory study has discovered such a vast share of adult-onset offenders. Furthermore, the findings turn out to be quite robust, if trajectory analyses are applied to different kinds of criminal activities and to different roles in criminal groups.
Smit P.,Research and Documentation Center |
Choenni S.,Research and Documentation Center
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series | Year: 2014
Forecasting systems require large quantities of data as input for reliable and adequate estimates. These estimates are used by policy makers to develop and implement effective and sound planning policies. In this case study, a forecasting system is presented to estimate the capacity needed in the near future in the Dutch justice field that has been in use already for more than ten years. Based on thousands of regression equations describing the behaviour and interaction of some 1500 variables, both inside and outside the justice field, it is performing better than other methods like simple extrapolations. The forecasts, on which the effects of future policy measures are added as well, are used for the budgeting of the Ministry of Justice. Besides, an example is given of a scenario study - A what/if analysis - where the forecasting system is used to look into the effects on the prison capacity needed if either the number of crimes or the way the criminal justice system reacts on crimes changes. Copyright © 2014 ACM.
van Koppen M.V.,Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement NSCR |
van Koppen M.V.,Research and Documentation Center |
van Koppen M.V.,VU University Amsterdam
Crime, Law and Social Change | Year: 2013
This study aims to illuminate the processes that make individuals engage in organized crime activities. Within the diversity of individual involvement processes, several distinctive mechanisms are discussed. Theoretical ideas are illustrated by empirical data on 15 crime groups, including over 300 offenders. The crime groups differ in size, composition, and the nature of criminal activities. Social capital theory is used to understand the dynamical process of becoming involved in organized crime; on the one hand an individual contributes to a crime group, on the other hand the crime group helps an individual reach certain goals. Case studies reveal several resources, such as knowledge, skills, and equipment, that make offenders suit and contribute to a particular organized crime group. Criminal and conventional histories of organized crime offenders turn out to be diverse. Several joint characteristics that opened doors to organized crime opportunities, like running one's own business, are discussed. It is confirmed that involvement through family and long-time friends is common; most criminal groups contain at least one or two relatives. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Odinot G.,Research and Documentation Center |
Wolters G.,Leiden University |
van Giezen A.,Leiden University
Psychology, Crime and Law | Year: 2013
In legal practice, both confidence and consistency of the testimony of eyewitnesses are often used as indicators for accuracy, but their usefulness has been questioned. The present study was designed to determine the relationship between accuracy, confidence and consistency in episodic memory. After viewing a video of a complex series of events, one group of participants was given an initial cued recall test after one week, and repeated recall tests after three and five weeks. A second group of participants was tested after three and five weeks, and a third group was tested only once after five weeks. Accuracy and confidence (at least for incorrect answers) decreased with longer initial retention intervals, but there was no decrease in either accuracy or confidence when recall was repeated. Repeated testing also did not lead to confidence inflation. Correlations between accuracy, confidence and consistency varied from medium to large. Inconsistencies were mainly caused by forgetting and reminiscence. These inconsistencies were recalled almost as accurately as consistently recalled information. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Leerkes A.,Erasmus University Rotterdam |
Leerkes A.,Research and Documentation Center |
Engbersen G.,Erasmus University Rotterdam |
van der Leun J.,Leiden University
Crime, Law and Social Change | Year: 2012
Both the number of crime suspects without legal status and the number of irregular or undocumented immigrants held in detention facilities increased substantially in theNetherlands between 1997 and 2003. In this period, theDutch state increasingly attempted to exclude irregular immigrants from the formal labour market and public provisions. At the same time the registered crime among irregular migrants rose. The 'marginalisation thesis' asserts that a larger number of migrants have become involved in crime in response to a decrease in conventional life chances. Using police and administrative data, the present study takes four alternative interpretations into consideration based on: 1) reclassification of immigrant statuses by the state and redefinition of the law, 2) criminal migration and crossborder crime, 3) changes in policing, and 4) demographic changes. A combination of factors is found to have caused the rise in crime, but the marginalisation thesis still accounts for at least 28%. These findings accentuate the need for a more thorough discussion on the intended and unintended consequences of border control for immigrant crime. © 2012 The Author(s).