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Hsu B.-M.,National Chung Cheng University | Huang C.-C.,National Chung Cheng University | Chen J.-S.,National Chung Cheng University | Chen J.-S.,Research and Diagnostic Center | And 2 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2011

This study compares five genera of free-living amoebae (FLA) hosts by Legionella spp. in the fixed and floating biofilm samples from spring environments. Detection rate of Legionella spp. was 26.9% for the floating biofilms and 3.1% for the fixed biofilms. Acanthamoeba spp., Hartmanella vermiformis, and Naegleria spp. were more frequently detected in floating biofilm than in fixed biofilm samples. The percentage of pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp. among all the genus Acanthamoeba detected positive samples was 19.6%. The potential pathogenic Naegleria spp. (for example, Naegleria australiensis, Naegleria philippinensis, and Naegleria italica) was 54.2% to all the Naegleria detected positive samples. In the study, 12 serotypes of possible pneumonia causing Legionella spp. were detected, and their percentage in all the Legionella containing samples was 42.4%. The FLA parasitized by Legionella included unnamed Acanthamoeba genotype, Acanthamoeba griffini, Acanthamoeba jacobsi, H. vermiformis, and N. australiensis. Significant differences were also observed between the presence/absence of H. vermiformis and Legionella parasitism in FLA. Comparisons between the culture-confirmed method and the PCR-based detection method for detecting FLA and Legionella in biofilms showed great variation. Therefore, using these analysis methods together to detect FLA and Legionella is recommended. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Liao T.-L.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Liao T.-L.,National Taiwan University | Liao T.-L.,Research and Diagnostic Center | Wu C.-Y.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | And 6 more authors.
EMBO Journal | Year: 2010

Influenza A virus RNA replication requires an intricate regulatory network involving viral and cellular proteins. In this study, we examined the roles of cellular ubiquitinating/deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs). We observed that downregulation of a cellular deubiquitinating enzyme USP11 resulted in enhanced virus production, suggesting that USP11 could inhibit influenza virus replication. Conversely, overexpression of USP11 specifically inhibited viral genomic RNA replication, and this inhibition required the deubiquitinase activity. Furthermore, we showed that USP11 interacted with PB2, PA, and NP of viral RNA replication complex, and that NP is a monoubiquitinated protein and can be deubiquitinated by USP11 in vivo. Finally, we identified K184 as the ubiquitination site on NP and this residue is crucial for virus RNA replication. We propose that ubiquitination/deubiquitination of NP can be manipulated for antiviral therapeutic purposes. © 2010 European Molecular Biology Organization.

Lee C.-M.,Chung Shan Medical University | Lee C.-M.,Nursing and Management College | Liao C.-H.,Far Eastern Memorial Hospital | Lee W.-S.,Taipei Medical University | And 4 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2012

From June to September 2011, a total of 305 ertapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates (MICs of ertapenem ≥ 1 μg/ ml) were collected from 11 hospitals in different parts of Taiwan. The MICs of 12 antimicrobial agents against these isolates were determined using the broth microdilution method, and genes for carbapenemases were detected using PCR. Genotypes of isolates possessing carbapenemase genes were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing. The ertapenem- nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates included Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 219), Escherichia coli (n = 64), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 15), and other species (n = 7). Seven (2.3%) of the ertapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates exhibited colistin MICs of >4 μg/ml, and 24 (7.9%) were not susceptible to tigecycline (MICs > 2 μg/ml). A total of 29 (9.5%) isolates carried genes encoding carbapenemases, namely, K. pneumoniae carbapenemase-2 (KPC-2) in 16 (7.3%) isolates of K. pneumoniae (KPC-2-KP) and IMP-8 in 5 (2.3%) isolates of K. pneumoniae, 5 (33.3%) isolates of E. cloacae, 1 isolate of E. coli, 1 isolate of Klebsiella oxytoca, and one isolate of Citrobacter freundii. The 16 KPC-2-KP isolates were isolated from patients at four different hospitals in northern Taiwan. All 16 of the KPC-2-KP isolates were susceptible to amikacin and colistin and had a similar pulsotype (pulsotype 1) and the same sequence type (sequence type 11). Infections due to KPC-2-KP mainly occurred in severely ill patients in the intensive care unit ( n = 14, 88%). Four patients with infections due to KPC-2-KP died within 14 days of hospitalization. The findings are the first to demonstrate intrahospital and interhospital dissemination of KPC-2-KP in northern Taiwan. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Hung C.-C.,National Yang Ming University | Chang S.-Y.,National Yang Ming University | Ji D.-D.,National Yang Ming University | Ji D.-D.,Research and Diagnostic Center
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Entamoeba histolytica infection (amoebiasis) is the second leading cause of death from parasitic diseases. Epidemiological studies from developed countries have reported an increasing prevalence of amoebiasis and of invasive infections, such as amoebic colitis, among men who have sex with men (MSM) who engage in oral-anal sex. Although most infections with E histolytica are asymptomatic, clinical manifestations of invasive amoebiasis mainly include amoebic colitis and amoebic liver abscess, which are associated with substantial morbidity and medical cost. Laboratory diagnosis of amoebiasis should be based on detection of E histolytica by use of tests with high sensitivity and specificity, such as specific amoebic-antigen or PCR-based assays. Microscopy used in routine clinical laboratories is not sensitive or specific enough for detection of E histolytica. Metronidazole or tinidazole remains the mainstay of treatment for invasive amoebiasis, followed by treatment with luminal agents to prevent relapse and transmission of E histolytica to sexual partners or close contacts. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Kuo C.C.,Research and Diagnostic Center | Kuo C.C.,University of California at Davis | Huang C.L.,Research and Diagnostic Center | Wang H.C.,Research and Diagnostic Center
Medical and Veterinary Entomology | Year: 2011

Scrub typhus and tick-borne spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are transmitted by chiggers (larval trombiculid mites) and hard ticks, respectively. We assessed exposure to these disease vectors by extensively sampling both chiggers and ticks and their small mammal hosts in eastern Taiwan during 2007 and 2008. The striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius Pallas (Rodentia: Muridae) was the most common of the small mammals (36.1% of 1393 captures) and presented the highest rate of infestation with both chiggers (47.8% of 110 760) and ticks (78.1% of 1431). Leptotrombidium imphalum Vercammen-Grandjean & Langston (Trombidiformes: Trombiculidae) and immature Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino (Ixodida: Ixodidae) were the most abundant chiggers (84.5%) and ticks (>99%) identified, respectively. Immunofluorescent antibody assay revealed high seropositive rates of rodents against Orientia tsutsugamushi Hyashi (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), the aetiological agent of scrub typhus (70.0% of 437 rodents), and tick-borne SFG rickettsiae (91.9% of 418 rodents). The current study represents a first step towards elucidating the potential hosts and vectors in the enzootic transmission of O. tsutsugamushi and tick-borne SFG rickettsiae in Taiwan. Further studies should focus on characterizing pathogens in L. imphalum and R. haemaphysaloides, as well as the proclivity of both vectors to humans. Uncovering the main hosts of adult ticks is also critical for the prevention of SFG rickettsial infections. © 2011 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.

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