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Denver, CO, United States

Gangopadhyay S.,Bureau of Reclamation | Pruitt T.,Bureau of Reclamation | Brekke L.,Research and Development Office | Raff D.,Program Management Office | Raff D.,U.S. Army
Eos | Year: 2011

Motivated by a common interest in establishing data access for climate change impacts analysis, the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Reclamation (referred to hereinafter as Reclamation) has collaborated since 2007 with federal and nonfederal entities to provide monthly gridded precipitation and temperature data from 112 contemporary climate projections (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3)) over the contiguous United States. The grid size resolution of this downscaled data archive (publicly available at http://gdo-dcp.ucllnl.org/downscaled-cmip3-projections/) is 1/8° latitude × 1/8° longitude (approximately 12 x 12 kilometers) and covers the period 1950-2099 [Maurer et al., 2007]. Downscaling is necessary to develop hydroclimate data (e.g., precipitation and temperature) from a coarse- resolution climate model grid to a higher-resolution grid, and the CMIP3 archive was downscaled using the statistical method of bias correction. Although approximately 1000 unique users to date have downloaded the precipitation and temperature information contained within the archive (commonly referred to as the bias corrected spatially downscaled, or BCSD-CMIP3, archive), these temperature and precipitation projections have not been used to consistently generate hydrologic projections over the United States and at fine enough scale to perform hydrologic impacts analysis and support local adaptation assessments. Without available hydrologic projections, planners typically develop and apply their own site-specific and local hydrology models to fill this information gap. However, this makes consistent regional intercomparisons of hydrologic impacts of climate change difficult.

Torabnejad E.,Research and Development Office | Haghighi-Khoshkhoo R.,Shahid Beheshti University | Sarabchi N.,University of Tabriz
Journal of Central South University | Year: 2014

Oxy fuel combustion and conventional cycle (currently working cycle) in Kazeroon plant are modeled using commercial thermodynamic modeling software. Economic evaluation of the two models regarding the resources of transport and injection of carbon dioxide into oil fields at Gachsaran for enhanced oil recovery in the various oil price indices is conducted and indices net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return on investment (IRR) are calculated. The results of the two models reveal that gross efficiency of the oxy fuel cycle is more than reference cycle (62% compared to 49.03%), but the net efficiency is less (41.85% compared to 47.92%) because of the high-energy consumption of the components, particularly air separation unit (ASU) in the oxy fuel cycle. In this model, pure carbon dioxide with pressure of 20×105 Pa and purity of 96.84% was captured. NO X emissions also decrease by 4289.7 tons per year due to separation of nitrogen in ASU. In this model, none of the components of oxy fuel cycle is a major engineering challenge. With increasing oil price, economic justification of oxy fuel combustion model increases. With the price of oil at $ 80 per barrel in mind and $ 31 per ton fines for emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, IRR is the same for both models. © 2014 Central South University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Jatapai A.,Research and Development Office | Sirivongrangson P.,Bureau of AIDS TB STIs | Lokpichat S.,Bureau of AIDS TB STIs | Chuenchitra T.,Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical science | Nelson K.E.,Johns Hopkins University
Sexually Transmitted Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection and other sexually transmitted infections in men potentially contribute significantly in sustaining the spread of the infection. To describe the distribution and related sexual behaviors, we conducted a cross-sectional study among young Thai men using a (1:30) systematic sampling of all newly inducted military conscripts in Thailand. Methods: In November 2008 and May 2009, participants' urine and serum samples were tested for CT and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction technique, and serologic testing for Treponema pallidum and HIV-1 was done. Information on demographic data and risk behaviors was obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. Results: The overall prevalence rates of CT, N. gonorrhoeae, HIV-1, and syphilis infection were 7.9%, 0.9%, 0.5%, 0.05%, respectively. The risk factors for CT infection were living in the upper north region (adjusted rate ratios [95% confidence interval], 2.13 [1.39-3.26]), having had 4 or more sexual partners (2.14 [1.48-3.09]), graduation from a vocational school (1.66 [1.14-2.41]), inconsistent condom use (1.48 [1.05-2.08]), unemployment (1.82 [1.06-3.12]), and age 21 years or younger (1.63 [1.01-2.63]). Conclusions: The prevalence of CT infection among young male military conscripts was high, especially among men from upper northern Thailand. Multiple sexual partners, graduation from a vocational school, inconsistent condom use, unemployment before the military induction, and younger age were independently associated with the CT infection among young Thai men. These data will be useful to develop more effective public health interventions to prevent, detect, and treat sexually transmitted infections among young men in Thailand. © 2013 American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association All rights reserved.

Ji S.-H.,Seoul National University | Ji S.-H.,Research and Development Office | Park M.,Seoul National University | Lee H.-S.,Seoul National University
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management | Year: 2012

Case-based reasoning (CBR) utilizes old solutions to solve a present problem. However, as no past situation is ever exactly the same as a new one, old solutions should be fitted for new circumstances, which is called case adaptation. Thus, the success of CBR depends on the ability of case adaptation. Generally, the case adaptation method can be categorized by two methods: decreasing the need for adaptation and increasing the capability. Nevertheless, previous research has focused on applying the method itself and rarely examined the adaptation or candidates selection. As an effort to enhance the performance of CBR, this research develops a case adaptation method that is balanced for both methods. To validate the method, a CBR cost model was developed that has an adaptation function using 129 military barrack projects in Korea, and then the method was tested by using 13 test cases. Furthermore, an applicability test was conducted based on 164 Korean public apartment projects. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Wang J.-H.,Central University of Costa Rica | Lin C.-L.,Research and Development Office
Proceedings - 2011 International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining, ASONAM 2011 | Year: 2011

Link analysis has been an important tool in crime investigation. Explicit or implicit social links, such as kinship, financial exchange, telephone connection, links derived from modus operandi, time of day, and geographic relationship, are often used to construct links between criminals. This paper proposes an association model based on modus operandi mining to establish links among crime cases and chronic criminals. Two data sets of robbery and residential burglary crime records were collected from a local police department and were used for experiment to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. © 2011 IEEE.

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