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Gangopadhyay S.,Bureau of Reclamation | Pruitt T.,Bureau of Reclamation | Brekke L.,Research and Development Office | Raff D.,Program Management Office | Raff D.,U.S. Army
Eos | Year: 2011

Motivated by a common interest in establishing data access for climate change impacts analysis, the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Reclamation (referred to hereinafter as Reclamation) has collaborated since 2007 with federal and nonfederal entities to provide monthly gridded precipitation and temperature data from 112 contemporary climate projections (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3)) over the contiguous United States. The grid size resolution of this downscaled data archive (publicly available at http://gdo-dcp.ucllnl.org/downscaled-cmip3-projections/) is 1/8° latitude × 1/8° longitude (approximately 12 x 12 kilometers) and covers the period 1950-2099 [Maurer et al., 2007]. Downscaling is necessary to develop hydroclimate data (e.g., precipitation and temperature) from a coarse- resolution climate model grid to a higher-resolution grid, and the CMIP3 archive was downscaled using the statistical method of bias correction. Although approximately 1000 unique users to date have downloaded the precipitation and temperature information contained within the archive (commonly referred to as the bias corrected spatially downscaled, or BCSD-CMIP3, archive), these temperature and precipitation projections have not been used to consistently generate hydrologic projections over the United States and at fine enough scale to perform hydrologic impacts analysis and support local adaptation assessments. Without available hydrologic projections, planners typically develop and apply their own site-specific and local hydrology models to fill this information gap. However, this makes consistent regional intercomparisons of hydrologic impacts of climate change difficult.


News Article | December 1, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

OHSU researchers compare prevalence of aquaporin-4 in the brains of those who had Alzheimer's to those who didn't have the disease PORTLAND, Ore. - A new scientific discovery may provide a future avenue for treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease. A study published Nov. 28 in the journal JAMA Neurology examined aquaporin-4, a type of membrane protein in the brain. Using brains donated for scientific research, researchers at OHSU discovered a correlation between the prevalence of aquaporin-4 among older people who did not suffer from Alzheimer's as compared to those who had the disease. "It suggests that aquaporin-4 might be a useful target in preventing and treating Alzheimer's disease," said senior author Jeffrey Iliff, Ph.D., an Assistant Professor in the Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine in the OHSU School of Medicine. "However, we aren't under any illusion that if we could just fix this one thing, then we'd be able to cure Alzheimer's Disease." Alzheimer's is a progressive disease, most often associated with aging, that causes problems with memory, thinking and behavior. It is the leading cause of dementia worldwide and is currently the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. The disease has no known cure but there are treatments available for some of its symptoms. Aquaporin-4 is a key part of a brain-wide network of channels, collectively known as the glymphatic system, that permits cerebral-spinal fluid from outside the brain to wash away proteins such as amyloid and tau that build up within the brain. These proteins tend to accumulate in the brains of some people suffering from Alzheimer's, which may play a role in destroying nerve cells in the brain over time. "This system, and the failure of the system, may be one of many things that goes wrong in people with Alzheimer's disease," Iliff said. The study closely examined 79 brains donated through the Oregon Brain Bank, a part of the OHSU Layton Aging and Alzheimer's Disease Center. They were separated into three groups: People younger than 60 without a history of neurological disease; people older than 60 with a history of Alzheimer's; and people older than 60 without Alzheimer's. Researchers found that in the brains of younger people and older people without Alzheimer's, the aquaporin-4 protein was well organized, lining the blood vessels of the brain. However within the brains of people with Alzheimer's, the aquaporin-4 protein appeared disorganized, which may reflect an inability of these brains to efficiently clear away wastes like amyloid beta. The study concluded that future research focusing on aquaporin-4 - either through its form or function - may ultimately lead to medication to treat or prevent Alzheimer's disease. In 2015, a multidisciplinary team of scientists from OHSU led by Iliff was awarded a $1.4 million grant from the Paul G. Allen Family Foundation to use to develop new imaging techniques based on MRI to see these processes at work in the aging human brain for the first time. In addition to Iliff, co-authors included Douglas M. Zeppenfeld; Matthew Simon, J. Douglas Haswell, and Daryl D'Abreo of the OHSU Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine; Charles Murchison, Joseph F. Quinn, M.D., and Jeffrey Kaye, M.D., of the OHSU Department of Neurology; and Marjorie R. Grafe, M.D., Ph.D., and Randall L. Woltjer, M.D., Ph.D., of the Department of Pathology. This work was supported by funding from the American Heart Association, grant 12SDG11820014, the Oregon Partnership for Alzheimer's Research, grants from the Research and Development Office of the Department of Veterans Affairs and the National Institutes of Health (NS089709), including Alzheimer's Disease Center grant AG08017 from the National Institute on Aging that supported the longitudinal follow-up and subsequent brain autopsies providing the human brain samples used in this study. Oregon Health & Science University is a nationally prominent research university and Oregon's only public academic health center. It serves patients throughout the region with a Level 1 trauma center and nationally recognized Doernbecher Children's Hospital. OHSU operates dental, medical, nursing and pharmacy schools that rank high both in research funding and in meeting the university's social mission. OHSU's Knight Cancer Institute helped pioneer personalized medicine through a discovery that identified how to shut down cells that enable cancer to grow without harming healthy ones. OHSU Brain Institute scientists are nationally recognized for discoveries that have led to a better understanding of Alzheimer's disease and new treatments for Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and stroke. OHSU's Casey Eye Institute is a global leader in ophthalmic imaging, and in clinical trials related to eye disease.


PubMed | Mount Vernon Hospital, University of Liverpool, Research and Development Office, University of Bristol and 4 more.
Type: | Journal: BMC cancer | Year: 2015

Human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is increasing in incidence worldwide. Current treatments are associated with high survival rates but often result in significant long-term toxicities. In particular, long-term dysphagia has a negative impact on patient quality of life and health. The aim of PATHOS is to determine whether reducing the intensity of adjuvant treatment after minimally invasive transoral surgery in this favourable prognosis disease will result in better long-term swallowing function whilst maintaining excellent disease-specific survival outcomes.The study is a multicentre phase II/III randomised controlled trial for patients with biopsy-proven Human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer staged T1-T3N0-N2b with a primary tumour that is resectable via a transoral approach. Following transoral surgery and neck dissection, patients are allocated into three groups based on pathological risk factors for recurrence. Patients in the low-risk pathology group will receive no adjuvant treatment, as in standard practice. Patients in the intermediate-risk pathology group will be randomised to receive either standard dose post-operative radiotherapy (control) or reduced dose radiotherapy. Patients in the high-risk pathology group will be randomised to receive either post-operative chemoradiotherapy (control) or radiotherapy alone. The primary outcome of the phase II study is patient reported swallowing function measured using the MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory score at 12months post-treatment. If the phase II study is successful, PATHOS will proceed to a phase III non-inferiority trial with overall survival as the primary endpoint.PATHOS is a prospective, randomised trial for Human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal cancer, which represents a different disease entity compared with other head and neck cancers. The trial aims to demonstrate that long-term dysphagia can be lessened by reducing the intensity of adjuvant treatment without having a negative impact on clinical outcome. The study will standardise transoral surgery and post-operative intensity-modulated radiotherapy protocols in the UK and develop a gold-standard swallowing assessment panel. An associated planned translational research programme, underpinned by tumour specimens and sequential blood collected as part of PATHOS, will facilitate further empirical understanding of this new disease and its response to treatment.This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02215265 .


Torabnejad E.,Research and Development Office | Haghighi-Khoshkhoo R.,Shahid Beheshti University | Sarabchi N.,University of Tabriz
Journal of Central South University | Year: 2014

Oxy fuel combustion and conventional cycle (currently working cycle) in Kazeroon plant are modeled using commercial thermodynamic modeling software. Economic evaluation of the two models regarding the resources of transport and injection of carbon dioxide into oil fields at Gachsaran for enhanced oil recovery in the various oil price indices is conducted and indices net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return on investment (IRR) are calculated. The results of the two models reveal that gross efficiency of the oxy fuel cycle is more than reference cycle (62% compared to 49.03%), but the net efficiency is less (41.85% compared to 47.92%) because of the high-energy consumption of the components, particularly air separation unit (ASU) in the oxy fuel cycle. In this model, pure carbon dioxide with pressure of 20×105 Pa and purity of 96.84% was captured. NO X emissions also decrease by 4289.7 tons per year due to separation of nitrogen in ASU. In this model, none of the components of oxy fuel cycle is a major engineering challenge. With increasing oil price, economic justification of oxy fuel combustion model increases. With the price of oil at $ 80 per barrel in mind and $ 31 per ton fines for emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, IRR is the same for both models. © 2014 Central South University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Wang J.-H.,Central University of Costa Rica | Lin C.-L.,Research and Development Office
Proceedings - 2011 International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining, ASONAM 2011 | Year: 2011

Link analysis has been an important tool in crime investigation. Explicit or implicit social links, such as kinship, financial exchange, telephone connection, links derived from modus operandi, time of day, and geographic relationship, are often used to construct links between criminals. This paper proposes an association model based on modus operandi mining to establish links among crime cases and chronic criminals. Two data sets of robbery and residential burglary crime records were collected from a local police department and were used for experiment to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. © 2011 IEEE.


Coppin R.,Research and Development Office | Wicke D.,Research and Development Office | Little P.,University of Southampton
Annals of Family Medicine | Year: 2011

PURPOSE Bulb syringes can be used for the self-clearance of earwax and, in the short term, appear effective. We compared the long-term effectiveness of self-irrigation using a bulb syringe with routine care in United Kingdom (UK) family practice clinics where irrigating ears to remove wax is a common procedure. METHODS We assessed the impact on health service utilization as a follow-up to a single-blind, randomized, controlled trial of 237 patients attending 7 UK family practice clinics with symptomatic, occluding earwax who were randomized to an intervention group (ear drops, bulb syringe, instructions on its use and re-use) or a control group (ear drops, then clinic irrigation). After 2 years, a retrospective notes search for earwax-related consultations was carried out. We used an intention-to-treat analysis to assess differences in dichotomous outcomes between groups. RESULTS In the 2-year trial follow-up, more control group patients returned with episodes of earwax: 85 of 117 (73%) control vs 70 of 117 (60%) intervention, χ 2 = 4.30; P =.038; risk ratio 1.21 (95% CI, 1.01-1.37). The numbers of consultations amounted to 1.15 (control) vs 0.64 (intervention) (incidence rate ratio 1.79; 95% CI, 1.05-3.04, P =.032), ie, a difference of 0.50 consultations, thus saving a consultation on average for every 2 people. CONCLUSION For patients who have not already tried bulb syringes, self-irrigation using a bulb syringe signif cantly reduces subsequent demand for ear irrigation by health professionals. Advocating the initial use of bulb syringes could reduce demand for ear irrigation in family practice clinics.

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