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Horiuchi H.,Research and Development Laboratories | Sasaki Y.,Meiji Co.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) and Streptococcus thermophilus are traditionally used for the manufacture of yogurt. It is said that a symbiotic relationship exists between Strep. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus and this decreases fermentation time. It is well known that L. bulgaricus is stimulated by the formate produced by Strep. thermophilus, and Strep. thermophilus is stimulated by free amino acids and peptides liberated from milk proteins by L. bulgaricus in symbiotic fermentation. We found that acid production by starter culture LB81 composed of L. bulgaricus 2038 and Strep. thermophilus 1131 was greatly accelerated by decreasing dissolved oxygen (DO) to almost 0. mg/kg in the yogurt mix (reduced dissolved oxygen fermentation) and that DO interferes with the symbiotic relationship between L. bulgaricus 2038 and Strep. thermophilus 1131. We attributed the acceleration of acid production of LB81 by reduced dissolved oxygen fermentation mainly to the acceleration of formate production and the suppression of acid production of LB81 by DO mainly to the suppression of formate production. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Source

Hussien E.M.,Research and Development Laboratories | Hussien E.M.,National Organization for Drug Control and Research
Biomedical Chromatography | Year: 2014

A novel reversed-phase HPLC method was developed and validated for the assay of tetracycline hydrochloride and the limit of 4-epianhydrotetracycline hydrochloride impurity in tetracycline hydrochloride commercial bulk and pharmaceutical products. The method employed L1 (3μm, 150×4.6mm) columns, a mobile phase of 0.1% phosphoric acid and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min, and detection at 280nm. The separation was performed in HPLC gradient mode. Forced degradation studies showed that tetracycline eluted as a spectrally pure peak and was well resolved from its degradation products. The fast degradation of tetracycline hydrochloride and 4-epianhydrotetracycline hydrochloride in solution was retarded by controlling the autosampler temperature at 4°C and using 0.1% H3PO4 as diluent. The robustness of the method was tested starting with the maximum variations allowed in the US Pharmacopeia (USP) general chapter Chromatography <621>. The method was linear over the range 80-120% of the assay concentration (0.1mg/mL) for tetracycline hydrochloride and 50-150% of the acceptance criteria specified in the individual USP monographs for 4-epianhydrotetracycline hydrochloride. The limit of quantification for 4-epianhydrotetracycline hydrochloride was 0.1μg/mL, 20 times lower than the acceptance criteria. The method was specific, precise, accurate and robust. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Khakwani S.,Women University Multan | Aslam S.,Women University Multan | Aslam S.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | Shahi M.N.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | And 4 more authors.
Asian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2016

The mass spectral fragmentation of ethyl 4-anilinopyrazolo [3,4-b]pyridine-5-carboxylic acids are presented. The fragmentation is initiated by the elimination of CO2 molecule followed by other fragments or elimination of water (m/z 18) which is then followed by successive loss of CO (m/z 28) and HCN (m/z 27). Source

Desai V.N.,Research and Development Laboratories | Afieroho O.E.,Nigerian National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development | Dagunduro B.O.,Research and Development Laboratories | Okonkwo T.J.,University of Port Harcourt | Ndu C.C.,Research and Development Laboratories
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2011

Purpose: The present study was undertaken to develop a validated, rapid, simple and low-cost ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometric method for estimating levofloxacin (LFX) in dosage preparations. Method: UV spectrophotometric analysis was performed spectrophotometrically at a pre-determined λmax of 290 nm with 0.1M HCl as diluent/blank. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, reproducibility, and specificity as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The method was also used in the determination of the content of levofloxacin in two commercial brands of levofloxacin in the Nigerian market. Results: The regression data for the calibration plots exhibited good linear relationship (r = 0.999) over a concentration range of 0.25 - 12.0 μg/ml and the linear regression equation was y = 0.075× + 0.018. Mean recovery accuracy was 98.7%, which was not significantly different from the expected value (p = 0.05), while coefficient of variation (CV) for both intra-day and inter-day was < 7%. The method was specific for levofloxacin in the presence of common excipients, and when it was applied to two marketed brands, levofloxacin content was 99.69 ± 2.38 and 102.65 ± 3.64%, respectively, of labeled claim. Conclusion: The proposed method gave good validation results and the statistical analysis performed proved that the method is precise, accurate and reproducible, and hence can be employed for routine analysis of LFX in bulk and commercial formulations. © Pharmacotherapy Group. Source

When Ford first began introducing its prototype foldable/transportable/electrified bicycles, the general response from mainstream media was relatively muted, perhaps because not too many auto industry observers knew what to make of the whole pedal power idea coming from the home of horsepower icons like Mustang, GT,  and F-150.However, if you have been following Ford’s rebranding as a mobility company and an auto manufacturer, the move into cycling technology makes perfect sense — and it could be huge, too. CleanTechnica got the inside scoop about Ford’s bicycle plans during the Detroit North American International Auto Show* on Tuesday, when we buttonholed Dr. Ken Washington, the company’s VP for Research and Advanced Engineering. Yeah, this guy: Prior to joining Ford, he was vice president of the Space Technology Advanced Research and Development Laboratories at Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company. In this role, Washington was responsible for leading an organization of approximately 700 scientists and engineers in performing research and development in space science and related R&D. So, there’s that. When we asked Dr. Washington, “how serious, really, is Ford about bicycles?” we got this unhesitating answer from Washington: That’s not a mere quip, by the way. We asked the question because Washington and Techstars Mobility Managing Director Ted Serbinski had just finished up a presentation about Ford’s mobility solutions titled “Finding New Ways To Move You.” At the outset Washington explained that while Ford is exploring about two dozen different ways to help people get through their day, currently the main focus is on just two of those areas, and one of those happens to involve bicycles (the other involves flexible use and ownership of vehicles so we’ll get to that some other time). The focus area that involves bicycles has to do with multi-modal transportation. Many people already experience it daily, for example by driving or biking to a parking lot to take a commuter bus or train. The problem is that “last mile,” when the mass transit vehicle reaches its destination, and your final destination is still a mile or so away. For a commute into an urban center, for example, one or so miles may sound like a manageable walk, but when you factor in extras like time, safety, or shlepping baggage, that last mile can mean the difference between taking mass transit or simply driving all the way in and finding a parking lot, thereby adding to urban congestion. Bicycles are an obvious last-mile solution, but as Washington explained, they are not a solution for everyone. Conventional pedal bikes require a certain level of fitness, and they are not an ideal alternative for people who are expected to show up for work without smelling like they just hopped off the Exercycle. Electric bicycles are a partial solution, since you don’t have to break a sweat to get where you’re going. However, conventional e-bikes are more suitable for full commutes. When used in tandem with bus or train travel, space limitations become a huge issue, as they already are for bicycles. With that in mind, Ford is anticipating demand for a foldable e-bike that dovetails with the demands of a multi-modal commute and could be transported easily by car, bus, or train. That solution could enable multi-modal commuters to use the same bicycle door-to-door, so it would also cut down on traffic and emissions issues at the home end of the commute. For those of you who have experience with New York’s Penn Station and other commuter points, a foldable bike — especially a lightweight one — also helps get around the awkwardness of trying to walk a full scale bicycle in a tightly packed crowd. Weather almost always requires cyclists to have a backup plan, but since Ford is all over cross-pollinating ideas within itself and with startups like Techstar Mobility’s Split, we’re thinking that Ford may be anticipating a market for employer-based multimodal cycling incentives that include rebates for weather related alternatives. Ford is also looking into the idea of a bicycle that could be integrated into its “Dynamic Shuttle” transit van, which just launched on a pilot basis at the company’s Dearborn campus. Concluding the multi-modal part of the presentation, Washington said: We’re taking smart risks and exploring lots of options, and finding new ways to move is going to require us to stitch together different technologies… That’s partly an allusion to the “intelligent” part of the-bike concept, which involves an Internet-connected hookup with smartphones. In our conversation after the presentation, Washington said that Ford is now in the stage of looking for partners and business models that would bring all this to market… so, look for a lot more bicycle activity from Ford in the coming years. Follow me on Twitter and Google+. *CleanTechnica is attending the Detroit NAIAS as a guest of Ford.    Get CleanTechnica’s 1st (completely free) electric car report → “Electric Cars: What Early Adopters & First Followers Want.”   Come attend CleanTechnica’s 1st “Cleantech Revolution Tour” event → in Berlin, Germany, April 9–10.   Keep up to date with all the hottest cleantech news by subscribing to our (free) cleantech newsletter, or keep an eye on sector-specific news by getting our (also free) solar energy newsletter, electric vehicle newsletter, or wind energy newsletter.  

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