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Nawrat G.,Silesian University of Technology | Nieuzula L.,Research and Development Center for Mining of Chemical Raw Materials | Gardela A.,Research and Development Center for Mining of Chemical Raw Materials
Galvanotechnik | Year: 2013

Electrodes based on electrodeposited layers of alloys of nickel and/or cobalt with phosphorus, containing dispersions of ruthenium and titanium oxides in the form of finely divided powders, are suitable for hydrogen production by electrolysis of alkaline aqueous solutions, on account of their very low hydrogen overpotential. The proportion of powders incorporated in the metal matrix is normally not significant and usually less than 1v%. The presence of phosphorus as an alloying component is beneficial in terms of the hydrogen overpotential. The films consisting of nickel-phosphorus, cobalt-phosphorus or nickel-cobaltphosphorus have an overvoltage of around 0.15 V at a current density of 100A/m2 or 0.3 V at 1 OOOA/m2 at 25 °C in 1 MNaOH. The incorporation of oxides in powdered form reduces hydrogen overvoltage. The lowest overpotentials werefound using nickel-cobaltphosphorus films incorporating particles of ruthenium oxide or a mixture of 40 % ruthenium oxide with 60 % titanium oxide. At a current density of 100A/m2, the overvoltage was around O.1V Incorporation of molybdenum powder, by contrast, worked to increase the hydrogen overvoltage. Source

Nawrat G.,Silesian University of Technology | Plonka M.,Silesian University of Technology | Gonet M.,Silesian University of Technology | Krzakala A.,Silesian University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Galvanotechnik | Year: 2015

The continuously growing demand for plastic materials, which require chlorine in their manufacturing, leads to the production of 45 millions metric tons of chlorine -10 millions of them in Europe. To produce 10 million tons of chlorine more than 0.5 square kilometers of anodes and 3 x 108 MWh of electric energy are needed. To save on material and energy usage there are efforts for process improvements underway. This article illuminates how the structure of oxide coatings impacts the corrosion resistance of activated titanium anodes in the production of chlorine. Source

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