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Rojnik M.,University of Ljubljana | Kocbek P.,University of Ljubljana | Moret F.,University of Padua | Compagnin C.,University of Padua | And 10 more authors.
Nanomedicine | Year: 2012

Aims: In this study we evaluated temoporfin-loaded polyethylene glycol (PEG) Poly-(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) as a new formulation for potential use in cancer treatment. Materials & methods: NPs were characterized for their photophysical properties, temoporfin release, cellular uptake and intracellular localization, and dark and photocytotoxicities of temoporfin by using A549, MCF10A neoT and U937 cell lines. In vivo imaging was performed on athymic nude-Foxn1 mice. Results: Temoporfin was highly aggregated within the NPs and the release of temoporfin monomers was faster from PEGylated PLGA NPs than from non-PEGylated ones. PEGylation significantly reduced the cellular uptake of NPs by the differentiated promonocytic U937 cells, revealing the stealth properties of the delivery system. Dark cytotoxicity of temoporfin delivered by NPs was less than that of free temoporfin in standard solution (Foscan®, Biolitec AG [Jena, Germany]), whereas phototoxicity was not reduced. Temoporfin delivered to mice by PEGylated PLGA NPs exhibits therapeutically favorable tissue distribution. Conclusion: These encouraging results show promise in using PEGylated PLGA NPs for improving the delivery of photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy. © 2012 Future Medicine Ltd.

Tavano R.,University of Padua | Segat D.,University of Padua | Reddi E.,University of Padua | Kos J.,University of Ljubijana | And 9 more authors.
Nanomedicine | Year: 2010

Aims: Undesired alterations of the blood clotting balance may follow the intravascular injection of nanotherapeutics/diagnostics. Here, we tested the procoagulant activity of synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) and organically modified silica (ORMOSIL) nanoparticles (NPs) and whether a high-density polyethylene glycol coating minimizes these effects. Materials & methods: Hageman factor- and tissue factor-dependent activation of human blood/plasma coagulation, and binding to human monocytes, endothelial cells and platelets were quantified in vitro using naked and PEGylated ORMOSIL-NPs. Their effects were compared with those of SAS-NPs, present in many industrial products, and of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)- and small unilamellar vesicles-NPs, already approved for use in humans. Results: Both SAS-NPs and ORMOSIL-NPS presented a significant procoagulant activity. However, highly PEGylated ORMOSIL-NPs were particularly averse to the interaction with the soluble factors and cellular elements that may lead to intravascular blood coagulation. Conclusion: Stealth, highly PEGylated ORMOSIL-NPs with a poor procoagulant activity can be used as starting blocks to design hemocompatible nanomedical-devices. © 2010 Future Medicine Ltd.

Segat D.,University of Padua | Tavano R.,University of Padua | Donini M.,University of Verona | Selvestrel F.,University of Padua | And 9 more authors.
Nanomedicine | Year: 2011

Aims: We wanted to test the proinflammatory effects of vinyltriethoxysilane-based organically modified silica nanoparticles (ORMOSIL-NPs) in vitro on blood leukocytes. Materials & Methods: Cell selectivity, cytokines/chemokines and O 2 - production were analyzed using nonpolyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated and PEGylated ORMOSIL-NPs, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-NPs and small unilamellar vesicles (SUV)-NPs. Results: ORMOSIL-NPs mostly bound to monocytes while other NPs to all leukocyte types similarly. Cell capture of PEGylated-NPs decreased strongly (ORMOSIL), moderately (PLGA) and weakly (SUV). Bare ORMOSIL-NPs effectively stimulated the production of IL-1β/IL-6/TNF-α/IL-8 by monocytes and of IL-8 by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). NP PEGylation inhibited such effects only partially. Formyl-methionine-leucine phenylalanine (f-MLP) further increased the release of cytokines/chemokines by monocytes/PMNs primed with bare and PEGylated ORMOSIL-NPs. PEGylated SUV-NPs, bare and PEGylated ORMOSIL- and PLGA-NPs sensitize PMNs and monocytes to secrete O 2 - upon f-MLP stimulation. Conclusion: ORMOSIL-NPs are preferentially captured by circulating monocytes but stimulate both monocytes and PMNs per se or by sensitizing them to another agonist (f-MLP). PEG-coating confers stealth effects but does not completely eliminate leukocyte activation. Safe nanomedical applications require the evaluation of both intrinsic and cooperative proinflammatory potential of NPs. © 2011 Future Medicine Ltd.

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