PubMed | Clinical Medicine and., Research and Development and., University of Bergen, University of Oslo and National Institute of Nutrition And Seafood Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of nutrition | Year: 2015
Data from recent meta-analyses question an association between dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Moreover, the prognostic effect of dietary SFA in patients with established CVD treated with modern conventional medication has not been extensively studied.We investigated the associations between self-reported dietary SFA intake and risk of subsequent coronary events and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).This study included patients who participated in the Western Norway B-Vitamin Intervention Trial and completed a 169-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire after coronary angiography. Quartiles of estimated daily intakes of SFA were related to risk of a primary composite endpoint of coronary events (unstable angina pectoris, nonfatal acute myocardial infarction, and coronary death) and separate secondary endpoints (total acute myocardial infarction, fatal coronary events, and all-cause death) with use of Cox-regression analyses.This study included 2412 patients (81% men, mean age: 61.7 y). After a median follow-up of 4.8 y, a total of 292 (12%) patients experienced at least one major coronary event during follow-up. High intake of SFAs was associated with a number of risk factors at baseline. However, there were no significant associations between SFA intake and risk of coronary events [age- and sex-adjusted HR (95% CI) was 0.85 (0.61, 1.18) for the upper vs. lower SFA quartile] or any secondary endpoint. Estimates were not appreciably changed after multivariate adjustments.There was no association between dietary intake of SFAs and incident coronary events or mortality in patients with established CAD.
PubMed | Abbott Laboratories, Research and Development and, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute and Research and Development and.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of nutrition | Year: 2016
Evidence suggests that human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) provide multiple benefits to infants, including prebiotic effects, gut maturation, antimicrobial activities, and immune modulation. Clinical intervention studies with HMOs are required to confirm these benefits in infants.Our objective was to investigate the effects of feeding formulas supplemented with the HMO 2-fucosyllactose (2-FL) on biomarkers of immune function in healthy term infants.We performed a substudy nested within a randomized, double-blind, controlled growth and tolerance study in healthy singleton infants (birth weight 2490 g) who were enrolled by 5 d of life and exclusively formula-fed (n = 317) or breastfed (n = 107) from enrollment to 4 mo of age. Formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 formulas, all containing 2.4 g total oligosaccharides/L [control: galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) only; experimental formulas: GOS + 0.2 or 1.0 g 2-FL/L], and compared with a breastfed reference group. For this substudy, blood samples were drawn from infants at 6 wk of age (n = 31-42/group). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated for cellular phenotyping and stimulated ex vivo with phytohemagglutinin for proliferation and cell cycle progression or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Cytokine concentrations were measured in plasma and in ex vivo-stimulated culture supernatants.Breastfed infants and infants fed either of the experimental formulas with 2-FL were not different but had 29-83% lower concentrations of plasma inflammatory cytokines than did infants fed the control formula [interleukin (IL) receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-1, IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-)] (P 0.05). In ex vivo RSV-stimulated PBMC cultures, breastfed infants were not different than either of the groups fed formula with 2-FL, but they had lower concentrations of TNF- (31%) and interferon (IFN- 54%) (P 0.05) and tended to have lower IL-1ra (25%) and IL-6 (38%) (unadjusted P 0.05) and IL-1 (30%) (unadjusted P = 0.06) than did infants fed the control formula.Our data indicate that infants fed formula supplemented with 2-FL exhibit lower plasma and ex vivo inflammatory cytokine profiles, similar to those of a breastfed reference group. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01808105.