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Holubec V.,Czech Republic Crop Research Institute | Hauptvogel P.,Plant Production Research Center Piestany | Paprstein F.,Research and Breeding Institute of Pomology Holovousy | Podyma W.,Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development | And 2 more authors.
Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2010

Old landraces and obsolete cultivars represent a national heritage that must be conserved for future generations. Similarly, crop wild relatives (CWR) are a valuable gene pool for plant breeding or for direct introduction as a new crop. These materials have been mapped, collected, evaluated, regenerated, and conserved in the Gene Bank. In total, 3726 seed and vegetative samples have been collected in the Czech Republic, as well as 1582 abroad (in Slovakia, Poland and Austria) during cross-border cooperation projects. All collecting sites (over 1000) were located by GPS and plotted using the Geobáze Professional 2.8 mapping software. Altogether, 688 samples were declared as a national collection, and 627 seed accessions were conserved in the Gene Bank. In addition, 842 accessions of fruits were recommended for in situ conservation. Selected species of the families Poaceae, Fabaceae, and Alliaceae, which are rare or threatened in the Czech Republic, have been monitored in situ for 3-5 years. Two sites were suggested for protection as new protected areas. Source


Kovacova J.,Institute of Chemical Technology Prague | Hrbek V.,Institute of Chemical Technology Prague | Kloutvorova J.,Research and Breeding Institute of Pomology Holovousy | Kocourek V.,Institute of Chemical Technology Prague | And 2 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2013

The dynamics of pesticide residues in strawberries that involved quantification of pesticide residues in ripe fruits after model treatment was evaluated in repeated field trials conducted over 3 years. Sixteen commercial pesticide formulations in various combinations were employed in applications from 7 to 44 days before harvest. Altogether 21 active ingredients and some of their metabolites were determined in treated strawberries using LC-MS and GC-MS methods. Except for propargite, the concentrations of all active ingredients declined below the respective MRLs (Regulation (EC) No. 396/2005); nevertheless, most of the tested fungicides often persisted above the 0.01 mg kg-1 limit required by baby food producers to avoid the risk of exceeding the 'baby food limit' established in Commission Directive 2006/141/EC. On the other hand, residues of the majority of tested insecticides, namely spinosad, pymetrozine, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and azadirachtin, declined below this limit. © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source


Kovacova J.,Institute of Chemical Technology Prague | Kocourek V.,Institute of Chemical Technology Prague | Kohoutkova J.,Institute of Chemical Technology Prague | Lansky M.,Research and Breeding Institute of Pomology Holovousy | Hajslova J.,Institute of Chemical Technology Prague
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2014

Apples represent the main component of most fruit-based baby food products. Since not only fruit from organic farming, but also conventionally grown fruit is used for baby food production, the occurrence of pesticide residues in the final product is of high concern. To learn more about the fate of these hazardous compounds during processing of contaminated raw material, apples containing altogether 21 pesticide residues were used for preparation of a baby food purée both in the household and at industrial scale (in the baby food production facility). Within both studies, pesticide residues were determined in raw apples as well as in final products. Intermediate product and by-product were also analysed during the industrial process. Determination of residues was performed by a sensitive multi-detection analytical method based on liquid or gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The household procedure involved mainly the cooking of unpeeled apples, and the decrease of residues was not extensive enough for most of the studied pesticides; only residues of captan, dithianon and thiram dropped significantly (processing factors less than 0.04). On the other hand, changes in pesticide levels were substantial for all tested pesticides during apple processing in the industrial baby food production facility. The most important operation affecting the reduction of residues was removal of the by-products after pulping (rest of the peel, stem, pips etc.), while subsequent sterilisation has an insignificant effect. Also in this case, captan, dithianon and thiram were identified as pesticides with the most evident decrease of residues. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source


Paprstein F.,Research and Breeding Institute of Pomology Holovousy | Sedlak J.,Research and Breeding Institute of Pomology Holovousy | Sillerova J.,Czech Republic Crop Research Institute | Korba J.,Czech Republic Crop Research Institute
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Pear (Pyrus communis L.) is a globally important vegetative propagated fruit species, which is widely cultivated in Central Europe. Unfortunately field grown trees and trees in nurseries are affected by many pathogens. Especially fire blight, which is highly destructive and increasingly important contagious disease caused by bacteria Erwinia amylovora, is a serious threat for commercial production of pears. During the last four decades, pathogen has spread throughout Europe including the Czech Republic. The aim of the present study was to test the level of resistance of eight selected pear cultivars against E. amylovora in in vitro culture conditions. Pear cultivars in in vitro culture conditions were tested on MS medium with 1 mg/L IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) and 0.1 mg/L BAP (6-benzylaminopurine). The isolate of E. amylovora (Ea 8/95) with stable virulence was used in this study. After careful removal of 3 mm of the shoot apex with scissors, a bacterial suspension at 106 CFU/ml was applied to the cut area by pipette. The evaluation was done 3, 5 and 9 days after inoculation. On the basis of obtained results, cultivar 'Margeurite Marillat' was the most resistant and 'Salisbury' the most susceptible. Results of artificial inoculation of in vitro cultures by E. amylovora indicate the possibility of using in vitro plants for testing of pear resistance to fire blight. © 2014, International Society for Horticultural Science. All rights reserved. Source


Sedlak J.,Research and Breeding Institute of Pomology Holovousy | Paprstein F.,Research and Breeding Institute of Pomology Holovousy | Sillerova J.,Czech Republic Crop Research Institute | Korba J.,Czech Republic Crop Research Institute
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Fire blight is a destructive bacterial disease that presents potential threat to apple and pear industries throughout Europe. Specific, safe and reliable methods for identifying the pathogen Erwinia amylovora and a consistent system for cultivar resistance testing can be very important factors in the management of the disease. Therefore a screening system for testing of pome fruit resistance to E. amylovora was developed based on in vitro artificial inoculation. Selected pome fruit genotypes were successfully established in vitro using mercuric chloride in a concentration of 0.15% as a sterilization solution. MS medium according to Murashige and Skoog (1962) with addition of cytokinins 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, 2 and 4 mg/L) or thidiazuron (TDZ, 0.5 and 1 mg/L) proved to be suitable for in vitro proliferation. We obtained multiplication coefficients higher than 2.0 for all tested pome fruit genotypes. The application of TDZ in both concentrations induced hyperhydricity in the case of 90% shoots of apple cultivar ('Kaiser Alexander'). After the multiplication phase, three MS based media were tested for shoot elongation: full MS medium with 1 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 0.1 mg/L BAP; 50% MS with 1 mg/L IBA and MS medium with macronutrients reduced to 40% and micronutrients reduced to 35% with 2.5 mg/L IBA. The aim in this phase was to obtain actively growing in vitro shoots elongated to at least 2.0 cm for experiments with in vitro artificial inoculation of E. amylovora. Out of the tested media, only full MS medium with 1 mg/L IBA and 0.1 mg/L BAP produced actively growing shoots longer than 2 cm suitable for monitoring of the development of bacterial lesions. © 2014, International Society for Horticultural Science. All rights reserved. Source

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