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Quezon City, Philippines

Laudico A.V.,University of the Philippines at Manila | Mirasol-Lumague M.R.,Philippine Cancer Society Manila Cancer Registry | Mapua C.A.,Research and Biotechnology Division | Uy G.B.,University of the Philippines at Manila | And 3 more authors.
Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology

The database of two population-based cancer registries (Philippine Cancer Society-Manila Cancer Registry and Department of Health-Rizal Cancer Registry) was used to generate agestandardized incidence rates of cancer during 1980-2002. Five-year relative survival rates were obtained for incident cases from 1993 to 2002 using a period analysis method. Overall incidence had increased in both males and females. Among males, lung cancer was the leading cancer and reached a peak in 1988-92. Colorectal and prostate cancers showed rising trends and became more common than liver cancer, with stable incidence over time. Stomach cancer incidence fell steeply. Among females, there was a steady increase in incidence of breast cancer. There was a slight decrease in the incidence of the second common cancer, cervical cancer, and colorectal cancer became equally common. Lung cancer incidence in females also reached a peak by 1998-2002 and then slightly decreased. Oral cavity cancer decreased strongly in the last period. In general, survival rates among Philippine residents were one-third lower than among Filipino-Americans and Whites in the USA especially in cancer sites wherein effective early detection methods may be available such as breast, cervix, colorectal and thyroid cancers. Survival was also lower in Philippine leukemia cases, a disease wherein effective treatment is proven in some types but is quite expensive. Lifestyle factors such as smoking, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and human papillomavirus and hepatitis B virus infections were associated with some incidence patterns. Late stage at diagnosis was largely responsible for low survival. © The Author (2010). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

Uy G.,University of the Philippines | Laudico A.,University of the Philippines | Carnate Jr. J.,University of the Philippines at Manila | Lim F.,University of the Philippines at Manila | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Breast Cancer

Background: Hormone receptor (HR) expression is the most important biomarker and is the cornerstone in the management of breast cancer. Therefore, the accuracy of its testing is critical in treatment decisions. Patients and Methods: A total of 160 consecutive patients accrued to an adjuvant hormonal therapy clinical trial between March 2003 and May 2008 were studied. Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) protein assays of tissues from modified radical mastectomy (MRM) specimens were compared with their previous core needle biopsy (CNB) ER and PgR immunohistochemical assay results. Results: The tumors of 146 (91.2%) out of the 160 patients with CNB HR-positive disease remained HR positive in MRM specimen assays. Estrogen receptor positivity decreased from 95% in the CNB to 81.9% in MRM specimens and PgR positivity from 93.8% to 86.9%. The overall agreement between CNB and MRM specimens was 81.9% for ER and 85.6% for PgR. The mean Allred scores were significantly higher in CNB than in MRM specimens: ER, 6.6 (SD, 2.02) versus 4.71 (SD, 2.62); PgR, 6.68 (SD, 2.16) versus 5.99 (SD, 2.68); P < .001 and P = .001, respectively. Conclusion: Core needle biopsy specimens are associated with the identification of more frequent and higher levels of tumoral hormonal receptor proteins than MRM specimens. Delayed fixation of MRM tissues likely accounted for this finding. Optimal selection of patients for hormonal therapies is dependent on tissue management strategies before formal hormonal receptor protein testing procedures. Source

Dominguez J.C.,The Medical Memory | Orquiza M.G.S.,The Medical Memory | Soriano J.R.,The Medical Memory | Magpantay C.D.,The Medical Memory | And 3 more authors.
East Asian Archives of Psychiatry

Objective: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is an instrument that aids clinicians in detecting mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer's disease. The study aimed to adapt the MoCA for use in the Philippines, and determine its psychometric validity when used in the Filipino setting. Methods: The MoCA was adapted by a multidisciplinary team working at the Memory Center of St. Luke's Medical Center, Manila, the Philippines. Contextual adaptation, rather than direct translation, was done. Pilot testing of the Filipino version of the MoCA (MoCA-P) was done on 12 grade 6 pupils and subsequently on 14 cognitively intact elderly people. Reliability testing of the MoCA-P was done on 25 elderly people by trained psychologists. Internal consistency, inter-rater and intra-rater reliability, as well as convergent and divergent validity of the MoCA-P were determined. Results: The MoCA-P yielded a high level of internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.938). Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability were 0.887 (p ≤ 0.05) and 0.969 (p ≤ 0.05), respectively. The MoCA-P correlated negatively with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (r = -0.233) and had a positive but low correlation with the Mini-Mental State Examination (r = 0.555). Conclusion: Contextual translation and pilot testing yielded several modifications of the MoCA. The MoCA-P is a reliable instrument for use in elderly Filipino patients. Further diagnostic validation of the MoCA-P to establish cutoff scores that would discriminate elderly individuals with normal cognition from those with dementia is needed to establish the clinical utility of the test. © 2013 Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists. Source

Meliton A.Y.,University of Chicago | Munoz N.M.,Research and Biotechnology Division | Meliton L.N.,University of Chicago | Birukova A.A.,University of Chicago | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology

Ventilation at high tidal volume may cause lung inflammation and barrier dysfunction that culminates in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). However, the mechanisms by which mechanical stimulation triggers the inflammatory response have not been fully elucidated. This study tested the hypothesis that onset of VILI is triggered by activation of secretory group V phospholipase A2 (gVPLA2) in pulmonary vascular endothelium exposed to excessive mechanical stretch. High-magnitude cyclic stretch (18% CS) increased expression and surface exposure of gVPLA2 in human pulmonary endothelial cells (EC). CS-induced gVPLA2 activation was required for activation of ICAM-1 expression and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) adhesion to CS-preconditioned EC. By contrast, physiological CS (5% CS) had no effect on gVPLA2 activation or EC-PMN adhesion. CS-induced ICAM-1 expression and EC-PMN adhesion were attenuated by the gVPLA2-blocking antibody (MCL-3G1), general inhibitor of soluble PLA2, LY311727, or siRNA-induced EC gVPLA2 knockdown. In vivo, ventilator-induced lung leukocyte recruitment, cell and protein accumulation in the alveolar space, and total lung myeloperoxidase activity were strongly suppressed in gVPLA2 mouse knockout model or upon administration of MCL-3G1. These results demonstrate a novel role for gVPLA2 as the downstream effector of pathological mechanical stretch leading to an inflammatory response associated with VILI. © 2013 the American Physiological Society. Source

Yatabe Y.,Aichi Cancer Center | Kerr K.M.,University of Aberdeen | Utomo A.,Stem cell and Cancer Institute Science | Rajadurai P.,University of Kuala Lumpur | And 22 more authors.
Journal of Thoracic Oncology

Introduction: The efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors in EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients necessitates accurate, timely testing. Although EGFR mutation testing has been adopted by many laboratories in Asia, data are lacking on the proportion of NSCLC patients tested in each country, and the most commonly used testing methods. Methods: A retrospective survey of records from NSCLC patients tested for EGFR mutations during 2011 was conducted in 11 Asian Pacific countries at 40 sites that routinely performed EGFR mutation testing during that period. Patient records were used to complete an online questionnaire at each site. Results: Of the 22,193 NSCLC patient records surveyed, 31.8% (95% confidence interval: 31.2%-32.5%) were tested for EGFR mutations. The rate of EGFR mutation positivity was 39.6% among the 10,687 cases tested. The majority of samples were biopsy and/or cytology samples (71.4%). DNA sequencing was the most commonly used testing method accounting for 40% and 32.5% of tissue and cytology samples, respectively. A pathology report was available only to 60.0% of the sites, and 47.5% were not members of a Quality Assurance Scheme. Conclusions: In 2011, EGFR mutation testing practices varied widely across Asia. These data provide a reference platform from which to improve the molecular diagnosis of NSCLC, and EGFR mutation testing in particular, in Asia. © 2014 by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Source

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