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News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

Hypertension, or high blood pressure, may come with a plus side, at least for a subset of women with ovarian cancer. New research from epidemiologists at Roswell Park Cancer Institute, published in the journal Cancer Causes & Control, provides evidence that hypertension and diabetes and the use of medications to treat these common conditions may influence the survival of ovarian cancer patients — sometimes in a detrimental way, but in the case of hypertension medications, perhaps as a benefit. Using pooled data from 15 studies that were part of the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, an international team of collaborators led by Kirsten Moysich, PhD, MS, and Albina Minlikeeva, PhD, MPH, retroactively examined the associations between survival among patients diagnosed with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer and those patients’ history of hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, and medications taken for those conditions. They found that while a history of diabetes was associated with a 112% higher risk of mortality across more than 7,600 cases, no significant mortality associations were observed for hypertension or heart disease. In fact, the authors report, among women with endometrioid ovarian cancer, a subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer typically associated with better outcomes, hypertension — a condition that applied to nearly 26% of women in the pooled analysis — was associated with 46% lower risk of ovarian cancer progression. “This is a coincidental and unintended consequence of hypertension and its treatment, but it’s a silver lining to a serious but largely manageable medical condition that has reached epidemic prevalence in the U.S. and many other countries worldwide,” says Dr. Moysich, Distinguished Professor of Oncology in the departments of Cancer Prevention and Control and Immunology at the Buffalo cancer center. This study is the first to highlight the role of comorbidities in relation to ovarian cancer survival by histological subtype, and confirmed previous findings linking a history of diabetes to increased risk of death among ovarian cancer patients. It’s possible that commonly prescribed antihypertensive medications, including beta blockers, may influence the growth of ovarian tumors. But the team also documented a higher overall risk of death for patients who had ever taken beta blockers, and notes that further study is needed to better understand these processes and interactions. “Our results suggest that it is important to investigate factors that explain the difference in cancer outcomes among women with different types of ovarian cancer. Most studies only consider clinical characteristics at diagnosis, such as stage and histology in relation to ovarian cancer prognosis,” adds Dr. Minlikeeva, a postdoctoral Research Affiliate with Roswell Park’s Department of Cancer Prevention and Control. “Our findings emphasize the importance of understanding the full clinical profile for women with ovarian cancer in order to predict ovarian cancer outcomes.” Approximately 22,300 new cases of ovarian cancer are diagnosed each year in the U.S., with an estimated 14,200 women dying from the disease each year. Endometrioid carcinoma accounts for about 20% of all epithelial ovarian cancers. The study, “History of hypertension, heart disease, and diabetes and ovarian cancer patient survival: evidence from the ovarian cancer association consortium,” is available at link.springer.com. This work was funded in part by grants and contracts from the National Cancer Institute (project nos. K07CA080668, K07CA095666, K22CA138563, N01CN55424 P30CA072720, P50CA105009, P50CA159981, R01CA074850, R01CA080742, R01CA095023, R01CA112523, R01CA126841, R01CA188900, R01CA54419, R01CA58598, R01CA61107, R01CA76016, R01CA87538, R25CA113951 and T32CA108456), National Library of Medicine (project no. K01LM012100), Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (project no. N01PC67001) and Roswell Park Alliance Foundation. A full list of funders is available in the Acknowledgments section at that link. For an online version of this release, please visit: https://www.roswellpark.org/media/news/epidemiological-analysis-shows-unexpected-benefit-related-high-blood-pressure-many The mission of Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI) is to understand, prevent and cure cancer. Founded in 1898, RPCI is one of the first cancer centers in the country to be named a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center and remains the only facility with this designation in Upstate New York. The Institute is a member of the prestigious National Comprehensive Cancer Network, an alliance of the nation’s leading cancer centers; maintains affiliate sites; and is a partner in national and international collaborative programs. For more information, visit http://www.roswellpark.org, call 1-877-ASK-RPCI (1-877-275-7724) or email askrpci(at)roswellpark(dot)org. Follow Roswell Park on Facebook and Twitter.


Swart V.R.,University of the Free State | Kirk-Spriggs A.H.,National Museum | Copeland R.S.,Research Affiliate
Zootaxa | Year: 2015

A second species of the genus Alhajarmyia Stuckenberg (A. stuckenbergi Swart, Kirk-Spriggs & Copeland, sp. n.), is described and figured, from the Eastern Arc Mountains of Kenya (Kasigau Mountain and Taita Hills), being the first vermileonid recorded from East Africa. The species is shown to differ from its congener, A. umbraticola (Stuckenberg & Fisher), described from Oman in the Arabian Peninsula, based on external characters including male and female terminalia. An identification key is provided together with distribution maps for the two species, and biogeographical aspects are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Magnolia Press.


Harapan H.,University of Syiah Kuala | Fitra F.,University of Syiah Kuala | Fitra F.,Taipei Medical University | Ichsan I.,University of Syiah Kuala | And 7 more authors.
Tuberculosis | Year: 2013

The central proteins for protection against tuberculosis are attributed to interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β, while IL-10 primarily suppresses anti-mycobacterial responses. Several studies found alteration of expression profile of genes involved in anti-mycobacterial responses in macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells from active and latent tuberculosis and from tuberculosis and healthy controls. This alteration of cellular composition might be regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). Albeit only 1% of the genomic transcripts in mammalian cells encode miRNA, they are predicted to control the activity of more than 60% of all protein-coding genes and they have a huge influence in pathogenesis theory, diagnosis and treatment approach to some diseases. Several miRNAs have been found to regulate T cell differentiation and function and have critical role in regulating the innate function of macrophages, dendritic cells and NK cells. Here, we have reviewed the role of miRNAs implicated in tuberculosis infection, especially related to their new roles in the molecular pathology of tuberculosis immunology and as new targets for future tuberculosis diagnostics. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


News Article | December 16, 2016
Site: news.mit.edu

Microelectromechanical systems, or MEMS, are tiny machines fabricated using equipment and processes developed for the production of electronic chips and devices. They’ve found a wide variety of applications in today’s consumer electronics, but their moving parts can wear out over time as a result of friction. A new approach developed by researchers at MIT could offer a new way of making movable parts with no solid connections between the pieces, potentially eliminating a major source of wear and failure. The new system uses a layer of liquid droplets to support a tiny, movable platform, which essentially floats on top of the droplets. The droplets can be water or some other fluid, and the precise movements of the platform can be controlled electrically, through a system that can alter the dimensions of the droplets to raise, lower, and tilt the platform. The new findings are reported in a paper in Applied Physics Letters, co-authored by Daniel Preston, an MIT graduate student; Evelyn Wang, the Gail E. Kendall Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering; and five others. Preston explains that the new system could be used to make devices such as stages for microscope specimens. The focus of the microscope could be controlled by raising or lowering the stage, which would involve changing the shapes of supporting liquid droplets. The system works by altering the way the droplets interact with the surface below them, governed by a characteristic known as the contact angle. This angle is a measure of how steep the edge of the droplet is at the point where it meets the surface. On hydrophilic, or water-attracting, surfaces, droplets spread out nearly flat, producing a very small contact angle, while hydrophobic, or water-repelling, surfaces cause droplets to be nearly spherical, barely touching the surface, with very large contact angles. On certain kinds of dielectric surfaces, these qualities can be “tuned” across that whole range by simply varying a voltage applied to the surface. As the surface gets more hydrophobic and the droplets get rounder, their tops rise farther from the surface, thus raising the platform — in these tests, a thin sheet of copper — that floats on them. By selectively changing different droplets by different amounts, the platform can also be selectively tilted. This could be used, for example, to change the angle of a mirrored surface in order to aim a laser beam, Preston says. “There are a lot of experiments that use lasers, that could really benefit from a way to make these small-scale movements.” The new system could be used to make devices such as stages for microscope specimens. The focus of the microscope could be controlled by raising or lowering the stage, which would involve changing the shapes of supporting liquid droplets. (Image: Daniel Preston/Device Research Lab) In order to maintain the positioning of the droplets rather than letting them slide around, the team treated the underside of the floating platform. They made the overall surface hydrophobic, but with small circles of hydrophilic material. That way, all the droplets are securely “pinned” to those water-attracting surfaces, keeping the platform securely in position. In the group’s initial test device, the vertical positioning can be controlled to within a precision of 10 microns, or millionths of a meter, over a range of motion of 130 microns. MEMS devices, Preston says, “often fail when there’s a solid-solid contact that wears out, or just gets stuck. At these very small scales, things break down easily.” While the basic technology behind the alteration of droplet shapes on a surface is not a new idea, Preston says, “nobody has used it to move a stage, without any solid-solid contact. The real innovation here is being able to move a stage up and down, and change its angle, without any solid material connections.” In principle, it would be possible to use a large array of electrodes that could be adjusted to move a platform across a surface in precise ways, in addition to up and down. For example, it could be used for “lab on a chip” applications, where a biological sample could be mounted on the platform and then moved around from one test site to another on the microchip. He says the system is relatively simple to implement and that it would be possible to develop it for specific real-world application fairly rapidly. “It depends how motivated people are,” he says. “But I don’t see any huge barriers to large-scale use. I think it could be done within a year.” “Controlled movements of a stage in microscale are difficult, because the miniature versions of the familiar motors and gear mechanisms do not exist, and if they existed, they would be too weak and frictional, respectively,” says Chang-Jin Kim, a professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at the University of California at Los Angeles, who was not involved in this research. “Since this challenge is rather fundamental, it is only logical (albeit exotic) to use liquid droplets as a mechanical element,” he says. “There are numerous questions remaining before this stage becomes practical, but this is a good start proving the main design concept.” “This approach is simpler and hence is expected to provide a significant cost benefit over existing techniques in practical applications,” says Prosenjit Sen, an assistant professor at the Centre for Nano Science and Engineering at the Indian Institute of Science, who also was not involved in this work. “The use of droplet supports additionally provides some degree of vibration isolation, which is not possible in all-solid stages.” The research team included MIT graduate students Ariel Anders and Yangying Zhu, Research Affiliate Banafsheh Barabadi, alumna Evelyn Tio ’14, and undergraduate student DingRan Dai. The work was supported by the Office of Naval Research and the National Science Foundation.


McGrew J.S.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | McGrew J.S.,Research Affiliate | How J.P.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Williams B.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics | Year: 2010

Unmanned aircraft systems have the potential to perform many of the dangerous missions currently flown by manned aircraft, yet the complexity of some tasks, such as air combat, have precluded unmanned aircraft systems from successfully carrying out these missions autonomously. This paper presents a formulation of a level-flight flxed- velocity one-on-one air-combat maneuvering problem and an approximate dynamic programming approach for computing an efficient approximation of the optimal policy. In the version of the problem formulation considered, the aircraft learning the optimal policy is given a slight performance advantage. This approximate dynamic programming approach provides a fast response to a rapidly changing tactical situation, long planning horizons, and good performance, without explicit coding of air-combat tactics. The method's success is due to extensive feature development, reward shaping, and trajectory sampling. An accompanying fast and effective rollout-based policy extraction method is used to accomplish online implementation. Simulation results are provided that demonstrate the robustness of the method against an opponent, beginning from both offensive and defensive situations. Flight results are also presented using unmanned aircraft systems flown at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's real-time indoor autonomous vehicle test environment. Copyright © 2010 by James S. McGrew. Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., with permission.


Ranjbar Pouya O.,University of Manitoba | Byagowi A.,University of Manitoba | Kelly D.M.,University of Manitoba | Moussavi Z.,University of Manitoba | Moussavi Z.,Research Affiliate
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology | Year: 2016

Age-related impairments during spatial navigation have been widely reported in egocentric and allocentric paradigms. However, the effect of age on more specific navigational components such as the ability to drive or update directional information has not received enough attention. In this study we investigated the effect of age on spatial updating of a visual target after a series of whole-body rotations and transitions using a novel landmark-less virtual reality (VR) environment. Moreover, a significant number of previous studies focused on measures susceptible to a general decline in motor skills such as the spent time navigating, the distance traversed. The current paper proposes a new compound spatial measure to assess navigational performance, examines its reliability and compares its power with those of the measures of duration and traversed distance in predicting participants' age and cognitive groups assessed by Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores. Using data from 319 adults (20–83 years), our results confirm the reliability, the age sensitivity, and the cognitive validity of the designed spatial measure as well as its superiority to the measures of duration and traversed distance in predicting age and MoCA score. In addition, the results show the significant effect of age cognitive status on spatial updating. © 2016 The Experimental Psychology Society


Sarraf-Shirazi S.,University of Manitoba | Baril J.-F.,University of Manitoba | Moussavi Z.,University of Manitoba | Moussavi Z.,Research Affiliate
Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing | Year: 2012

The various malfunctions and difficulties of the swallowing mechanism necessitate various diagnostic techniques to address those problems. Swallowing sounds recorded from the trachea have been suggested as a noninvasive method of swallowing assessment. However, acquiring signals from the trachea can be difficult for those with loose skin. The objective of this pilot study was to explore the viability of using the ear and nose as alternative recording locations for recording swallowing sounds. We recorded the swallowing and breathing sounds of five healthy young individuals from the ear, nose and trachea, simultaneously. We computed time-frequency features and compared them for the different locations of recording. The features included the peak and the maximumfrequencies of thepower spectrum density, average power at different frequency bands and the wavelet coefficients. The average power calculated over the 4 octave bands between 150 and 2,400 Hz showed a consistent trend with less than 20 dB difference for the breath sounds of all the recording locations. Thus, analyzing breath sounds recorded from the ear and nose for the purpose of aspiration detection would give similar results to those from tracheal recordings; thus, ear and nose recording may be a viable alternative when tracheal recording is not possible. © International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering 2012.


News Article | December 16, 2016
Site: phys.org

A new approach developed by researchers at MIT could offer a new way of making movable parts with no solid connections between the pieces, potentially eliminating a major source of wear and failure. The new system uses a layer of liquid droplets to support a tiny, movable platform, which essentially floats on top of the droplets. The droplets can be water or some other fluid, and the precise movements of the platform can be controlled electrically, through a system that can alter the dimensions of the droplets to raise, lower, and tilt the platform. The new findings are reported in a paper in Applied Physics Letters, co-authored by Daniel Preston, an MIT graduate student; Evelyn Wang, the Gail E. Kendall Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering; and five others. Preston explains that the new system could be used to make devices such as stages for microscope specimens. The focus of the microscope could be controlled by raising or lowering the stage, which would involve changing the shapes of supporting liquid droplets. The system works by altering the way the droplets interact with the surface below them, governed by a characteristic known as the contact angle. This angle is a measure of how steep the edge of the droplet is at the point where it meets the surface. On hydrophilic, or water-attracting, surfaces, droplets spread out nearly flat, producing a very small contact angle, while hydrophobic, or water-repelling, surfaces cause droplets to be nearly spherical, barely touching the surface, with very large contact angles. On certain kinds of dielectric surfaces, these qualities can be "tuned" across that whole range by simply varying a voltage applied to the surface. As the surface gets more hydrophobic and the droplets get rounder, their tops rise farther from the surface, thus raising the platform—in these tests, a thin sheet of copper—that floats on them. By selectively changing different droplets by different amounts, the platform can also be selectively tilted. This could be used, for example, to change the angle of a mirrored surface in order to aim a laser beam, Preston says. "There are a lot of experiments that use lasers, that could really benefit from a way to make these small-scale movements." In order to maintain the positioning of the droplets rather than letting them slide around, the team treated the underside of the floating platform. They made the overall surface hydrophobic, but with small circles of hydrophilic material. That way, all the droplets are securely "pinned" to those water-attracting surfaces, keeping the platform securely in position. In the group's initial test device, the vertical positioning can be controlled to within a precision of 10 microns, or millionths of a meter, over a range of motion of 130 microns. MEMS devices, Preston says, "often fail when there's a solid-solid contact that wears out, or just gets stuck. At these very small scales, things break down easily." While the basic technology behind the alteration of droplet shapes on a surface is not a new idea, Preston says, "nobody has used it to move a stage, without any solid-solid contact. The real innovation here is being able to move a stage up and down, and change its angle, without any solid material connections." In principle, it would be possible to use a large array of electrodes that could be adjusted to move a platform across a surface in precise ways, in addition to up and down. For example, it could be used for "lab on a chip" applications, where a biological sample could be mounted on the platform and then moved around from one test site to another on the microchip. He says the system is relatively simple to implement and that it would be possible to develop it for specific real-world application fairly rapidly. "It depends how motivated people are," he says. "But I don't see any huge barriers to large-scale use. I think it could be done within a year." The research team included MIT graduate students Ariel Anders and Yangying Zhu, Research Affiliate Banafsheh Barabadi, alumna Evelyn Tio '14, and undergraduate student DingRan Dai. The work was supported by the Office of Naval Research and the National Science Foundation.


News Article | December 16, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Cambridge, Mass. -- Microelectromechanical systems, or MEMS, are tiny machines fabricated using equipment and processes developed for the production of electronic chips and devices. They've found a wide variety of applications in today's consumer electronics, but their moving parts can wear out over time as a result of friction. A new approach developed by researchers at MIT could offer a new way of making movable parts with no solid connections between the pieces, potentially eliminating a major source of wear and failure. The new system uses a layer of liquid droplets to support a tiny, movable platform, which essentially floats on top of the droplets. The droplets can be water or some other fluid, and the precise movements of the platform can be controlled electrically, through a system that can alter the dimensions of the droplets to raise, lower, and tilt the platform. The new findings are reported in a paper in Applied Physics Letters, co-authored by Daniel Preston, an MIT graduate student; Evelyn Wang, the Gail E. Kendall Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering; and five others. Preston explains that the new system could be used to make devices such as stages for microscope specimens. The focus of the microscope could be controlled by raising or lowering the stage, which would involve changing the shapes of supporting liquid droplets. The system works by altering the way the droplets interact with the surface below them, governed by a characteristic known as the contact angle. This angle is a measure of how steep the edge of the droplet is at the point where it meets the surface. On hydrophilic, or water-attracting, surfaces, droplets spread out nearly flat, producing a very small contact angle, while hydrophobic, or water-repelling, surfaces cause droplets to be nearly spherical, barely touching the surface, with very large contact angles. On certain kinds of dielectric surfaces, these qualities can be "tuned" across that whole range by simply varying a voltage applied to the surface. As the surface gets more hydrophobic and the droplets get rounder, their tops rise farther from the surface, thus raising the platform -- in these tests, a thin sheet of copper -- that floats on them. By selectively changing different droplets by different amounts, the platform can also be selectively tilted. This could be used, for example, to change the angle of a mirrored surface in order to aim a laser beam, Preston says. "There are a lot of experiments that use lasers, that could really benefit from a way to make these small-scale movements." In order to maintain the positioning of the droplets rather than letting them slide around, the team treated the underside of the floating platform. They made the overall surface hydrophobic, but with small circles of hydrophilic material. That way, all the droplets are securely "pinned" to those water-attracting surfaces, keeping the platform securely in position. In the group's initial test device, the vertical positioning can be controlled to within a precision of 10 microns, or millionths of a meter, over a range of motion of 130 microns. MEMS devices, Preston says, "often fail when there's a solid-solid contact that wears out, or just gets stuck. At these very small scales, things break down easily." While the basic technology behind the alteration of droplet shapes on a surface is not a new idea, Preston says, "nobody has used it to move a stage, without any solid-solid contact. The real innovation here is being able to move a stage up and down, and change its angle, without any solid material connections." In principle, it would be possible to use a large array of electrodes that could be adjusted to move a platform across a surface in precise ways, in addition to up and down. For example, it could be used for "lab on a chip" applications, where a biological sample could be mounted on the platform and then moved around from one test site to another on the microchip. He says the system is relatively simple to implement and that it would be possible to develop it for specific real-world application fairly rapidly. "It depends how motivated people are," he says. "But I don't see any huge barriers to large-scale use. I think it could be done within a year." The research team included MIT graduate students Ariel Anders and Yangying Zhu, Research Affiliate Banafsheh Barabadi, alumna Evelyn Tio '14, and undergraduate student DingRan Dai. The work was supported by the Office of Naval Research and the National Science Foundation.


Home > Press > Movable microplatform floats on a sea of droplets: New technique offers precise, durable control over tiny mirrors or stages Abstract: Microelectromechanical systems, or MEMS, are tiny machines fabricated using equipment and processes developed for the production of electronic chips and devices. They've found a wide variety of applications in today's consumer electronics, but their moving parts can wear out over time as a result of friction. A new approach to microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), developed by a team of researchers at MIT, could offer a new way of making movable parts with no solid connections between the pieces, potentially eliminating a major source of wear and failure. Video: Melanie Gonick/MIT A new approach developed by researchers at MIT could offer a new way of making movable parts with no solid connections between the pieces, potentially eliminating a major source of wear and failure. The new system uses a layer of liquid droplets to support a tiny, movable platform, which essentially floats on top of the droplets. The droplets can be water or some other fluid, and the precise movements of the platform can be controlled electrically, through a system that can alter the dimensions of the droplets to raise, lower, and tilt the platform. The new findings are reported in a paper in Applied Physics Letters, co-authored by Daniel Preston, an MIT graduate student; Evelyn Wang, the Gail E. Kendall Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering; and five others. Preston explains that the new system could be used to make devices such as stages for microscope specimens. The focus of the microscope could be controlled by raising or lowering the stage, which would involve changing the shapes of supporting liquid droplets. The system works by altering the way the droplets interact with the surface below them, governed by a characteristic known as the contact angle. This angle is a measure of how steep the edge of the droplet is at the point where it meets the surface. On hydrophilic, or water-attracting, surfaces, droplets spread out nearly flat, producing a very small contact angle, while hydrophobic, or water-repelling, surfaces cause droplets to be nearly spherical, barely touching the surface, with very large contact angles. On certain kinds of dielectric surfaces, these qualities can be "tuned" across that whole range by simply varying a voltage applied to the surface. As the surface gets more hydrophobic and the droplets get rounder, their tops rise farther from the surface, thus raising the platform -- in these tests, a thin sheet of copper -- that floats on them. By selectively changing different droplets by different amounts, the platform can also be selectively tilted. This could be used, for example, to change the angle of a mirrored surface in order to aim a laser beam, Preston says. "There are a lot of experiments that use lasers, that could really benefit from a way to make these small-scale movements." In order to maintain the positioning of the droplets rather than letting them slide around, the team treated the underside of the floating platform. They made the overall surface hydrophobic, but with small circles of hydrophilic material. That way, all the droplets are securely "pinned" to those water-attracting surfaces, keeping the platform securely in position. In the group's initial test device, the vertical positioning can be controlled to within a precision of 10 microns, or millionths of a meter, over a range of motion of 130 microns. MEMS devices, Preston says, "often fail when there's a solid-solid contact that wears out, or just gets stuck. At these very small scales, things break down easily." While the basic technology behind the alteration of droplet shapes on a surface is not a new idea, Preston says, "nobody has used it to move a stage, without any solid-solid contact. The real innovation here is being able to move a stage up and down, and change its angle, without any solid material connections." In principle, it would be possible to use a large array of electrodes that could be adjusted to move a platform across a surface in precise ways, in addition to up and down. For example, it could be used for "lab on a chip" applications, where a biological sample could be mounted on the platform and then moved around from one test site to another on the microchip. He says the system is relatively simple to implement and that it would be possible to develop it for specific real-world application fairly rapidly. "It depends how motivated people are," he says. "But I don't see any huge barriers to large-scale use. I think it could be done within a year." The research team included MIT graduate students Ariel Anders and Yangying Zhu, Research Affiliate Banafsheh Barabadi, alumna Evelyn Tio '14, and undergraduate student DingRan Dai. The work was supported by the Office of Naval Research and the National Science Foundation. For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

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