Pai S.,Cornell College |
Boutin-Foster C.,Cornell College |
Mancuso C.A.,Cornell College |
Mancuso C.A.,Hospital for Special Surgery |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Asthma | Year: 2014
Objective: The objective of this study was to identify the types of interactions between asthma patients and their social networks such as close family and friends that influence the management of asthma. Methods: Participants were Latino adults presenting for a repeat visit to the emergency department for asthma treatment. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 76 participants. They were asked to describe the experiences of their social networks that have asthma and how interactions with these individuals influenced their own asthma management. Responses were transcribed and analyzed using Grounded Theory as a qualitative analytic approach. Responses were assigned codes; similar codes were grouped into concepts and then categorized to form overarching themes. Results: Four themes emerged: (1) Perceptions of severity of asthma may be based on the experiences of social networks; (2) Economic factors may contribute to the sharing and borrowing of asthma medications between patients and their social networks; (3) Economic factors may contribute to using home remedies instead of prescribed medications; (4) Social network members may be unaware of the factors that trigger asthma and therefore, contribute to asthma exacerbations. Conclusion: This study identified important social network interactions that may impact asthma management in Latino adults. These results can be used to broaden the current focus of asthma self-management programs to incorporate discussions on the role of social networks. A focus on social network interactions addresses the social epidemiology of asthma and advances our understanding of root causes that may underlie the high prevalence of asthma in many Latino communities. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved.
Rodger I.W.,McMaster University |
Dilar D.,Diagnostic Healthcare |
Dwyer J.,Diagnostic Healthcare |
Bienenstock J.,McMaster University |
And 16 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Objective:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease of the CNS. Recently a controversial vascular hypothesis for MS, termed chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI), has been advanced. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative prevalence of the venous abnormalities that define CCSVI.Methods:A case-control study was conducted in which 100 MS patients aged between 18-65 y meeting the revised McDonald criteria were randomly selected and stratified into one of four MS subtypes: relapsing/remitting, secondary progressive, primary progressive and benign. Control subjects (16-70 y) with no known history of MS or other neurological condition were matched with the MS cases. All cases and controls underwent ultrasound imaging of the veins of the neck plus the deep cerebral veins, and magnetic resonance imaging of the neck veins and brain. These procedures were performed on each participant on the same day.Results:On ultrasound we found no evidence of reflux, stenosis or blockage in the internal jugular veins (IJV) or vertebral veins (VV) in any study participant. Similarly, there was no evidence of either reflux or cessation of flow in the deep cerebral veins in any subject. Flow was detected in the IJV and VV in all study participants. Amongst 199 participants there was one MS subject who fulfilled the minimum two ultrasound criteria for CCSVI. Using MRI we found no significant differences in either the intra- or extra-cranial venous flow velocity or venous architecture between cases and controls.Conclusion:This case-control study provides compelling evidence against the involvement of CCSVI in multiple sclerosis. © 2013 Rodger et al.
News Article | February 28, 2017
TORONTO, Feb. 28, 2017--A review initiated by St. Michael's Hospital found that a significant gender gap exists across all job descriptions, research disciplines and academic rankings at its research institute. vThe study, led by Dr. Sharon Straus, director of the Knowledge Translation Program at the hospital's Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, said that of the institute's 206 scientists, 62 were women and 144 were men, representing a 39.8 per cent gender gap. The study was published today in the online open-access journal CMAJ Open. The study found the largest gender gap broken down by job classification was among clinician scientists -- researchers who are also physicians. Clinician scientists make up the majority of full-time scientists at St. Michael's and there was a gender gap of 54.2 per cent in this job category The smallest gender gap by job classification was among employee scientists (scientists with a PhD who are not clinicians) and associate scientists (who have a part-time appointment at St. Michael's or who may also have appointments elsewhere) with 21.8 per cent more male than female scientists. Dr. Straus said the gender gap in academic medicine is longstanding, and exists not just in Canada but also in the United States, Britain and Europe. "Failure to ensure our scientists reflect our student pool and the national population deprives Canada of talented individuals who could enhance innovation and advance our competitiveness," Dr. Straus said. Dr. Arthur S. Slutsky, vice-president of research at St. Michael's, welcomed the report and said steps have already been taken to redress the gender imbalance. He said the hospital's goal is that 50 per cent of the scientists recruited over the next three to five years will be women. "Diversity, including a better gender balance, benefits the entire research community, ultimately benefiting our patients," Dr. Slutsky said. "Studying the challenges we need to overcome is our first step." The study found that almost 69 per cent of scientists at St. Michael's are focused on clinical research, studying health and illness in people to learn how to prevent, diagnose and treat illness. Another 21 per cent conduct basic research, which examines cells and molecules to better understand the causes and mechanisms of disease. The other 10 per cent did both. Ninety-five percent of scientists conducting basic research were men, indicating a 90.5 per cent gender gap. Among scientists conducting clinical research, the gender gap was 21.2 per cent. The study said that 201 of the 206 St. Michael's scientists had a University of Toronto appointment, from lecturer to full professor. While woman have outnumbered men at undergraduate and graduate student levels in Canadian universities for more than 20 years, this survey found the higher the university rank, the lower the proportion of women. Specifically, 85.7 per cent of full professors were men and 14.3 per cent were women, indicating a gender gap of 71.4 per cent. Dr. Straus said the study found that informal search and recruitment processes at the hospital were likely one contributing factor to the gender gap. When the researchers interviewed 21 St. Michael's scientists about why they felt the gender gap existed and how it impacted them, many said they perceived the recruitment process was unclear and was not transparent. Some women described a feeling of social isolation, such as feeling unheard in meetings and being excluded from meetings outside regular business hours because of presumptions about family responsibilities. Participants speculated that the existing gender gap might dissipate as men in senior positions retired and more women in junior positions advanced. But Dr. Straus said given that the gender gap in academics was longstanding, "it is highly unlikely that the 'tincture of time' will resolve it, so more affirmative action is necessary. Dr. Straus's study was commissioned by St. Michael's research institute to help guide efforts to redress the gender imbalance. Dr. Slutsky said steps taken by St. Michael's include: The gender gap has also been recognized as important by the Department of Medicine at the University of Toronto and is being addressed through activities such as a Summit for Women in Academic Medicine being co-hosted March 1 by Dr. Straus and Dr. Gillian Hawker, chair of the department. Female faculty members have been invited to listen to women leaders in medicine and a range of other disciplines, build their leadership skills, network with one another and help create an action plan to increase gender equality across the Faculty of Medicine. Dr. Straus is a geriatrician at St. Michael's Hospital and a professor in the Department of Medicine and Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation at the University of Toronto. She holds a Tier 1 Canada Research Chair in Knowledge Translation and Quality Care and has received more than $30 million in peer-reviewed research grants as a principal investigator. This study was funded by the St. Michael's Hospital Office of Research Administration. St Michael's Hospital provides compassionate care to all who enter its doors. The hospital also provides outstanding medical education to future health care professionals in 27 academic disciplines. Critical care and trauma, heart disease, neurosurgery, diabetes, cancer care, care of the homeless and global health are among the Hospital's recognized areas of expertise. Through the Keenan Research Centre and the Li Ka Shing International Healthcare Education Centre, which make up the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, research and education at St. Michael's Hospital are recognized and make an impact around the world. Founded in 1892, the hospital is fully affiliated with the University of Toronto. Media contacts, for more information or to arrange an interview:
Reagan K.M.L.,Hartford Hospital |
O'Sullivan D.M.,Research Administration |
Lasala C.A.,University of Connecticut
Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery | Year: 2015
Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the reading level of frequently used patient information pamphlets and documents in the field of urogynecology. Methods Urogynecology pamphlets were identified from a variety of sources. Readability was determined using 4 different accepted formulas: the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, the simple measure of gobbledygook Index, the Coleman-Liau Index, and the Gunning Fog index. The scores were calculated using an online calculator (http://www.readability-score.com). Descriptive statistics were used for analysis. The average of the 4 scores was calculated for each pamphlet. Subsequently, Z-scores were used to standardize the averages between the reading scales. Results Of the 40 documents reviewed, only a single pamphlet met the National Institutes of Health-recommended reading level. This document was developed by the American Urological Association and was specifically designated as a "Low-Literacy Brochure." The remainder of the patient education pamphlets, from both industry-sponsored and academic-sponsored sources, consistently rated above the recommended reading level for maximum comprehension. Conclusions The majority of patient education pamphlets, from both industry-sponsored and academic-sponsored sources, are above the reading level recommended by the National Institutes of Health for maximum patient comprehension. Future work should be done to improve the educational resources available to patients by simplifying the verbiage in these documents. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.
PubMed | Research Administration, Center for Child and Adolescent Health, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Center for Control of Chronic Diseases and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Journal of addiction | Year: 2015
Introduction and Aim. Injecting drug users (IDUs) are amongst the most vulnerable people to acquisition of HIV/AIDS. This study aims to collect information on IDUs and their health seeking behavior in Bangladesh. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 120 IDUs attending a drug rehabilitation center in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data were collected on sociodemographics, drug use, health seeking behavior, knowledge of injecting drugs, and sexual behavior. Results. The mean SD and median (IQR) age of the participants were 32.5 21.3 and 33 (27-38) years, respectively, with only 9.2% females. Injection buprenorphine was the drug of choice for 40% of participants, and 58% of the participants first started drug use with smoking cannabis. 73.3% of participants shared needles sometimes and 57.5% were willing to use the needle exchange programs. 60% of the participants had no knowledge about the diseases spread by injection. Condom use during the last intercourse with regular partners was 11.7% and with any partners 15.8%. Conclusion. IDUs in Bangladesh are a high-risk group for HIV/AIDS due to lack of knowledge and risky behaviors. Education and interventions specifically aimed at IDUs are needed, because traditional education may not reach IDUs or influence their behavior.
News Article | February 15, 2017
Evisions, Inc., a leader in education and research software solutions, today announced the company is the first in its industry to receive the prestigious ISO 27001 vendor certification for the Evisions Research Suite. With ISO 27001 certification, the Evisions Research Suite enables North American customers to securely leverage best-practice workflows that simplify processes, mitigate risk and ensure compliance. ISO 27001 is the strictest and most widely recognized international security certification available for SaaS solutions. As a recognized leader in customer satisfaction, Evisions opted for ISO 27001 vendor certification to underscore its commitment to information security and data privacy for the research community and the company’s customers. “Evisions is the only electronic research administration provider to back its customer commitment with ISO 27001 vendor certification,” said Joe Potenza, Evisions CEO. “In an era of heightened concern for information and cybersecurity, we work to consistently exceed the highest standards for safeguarding customer information.” ISO 27001 certification is based on a company’s information security management system (ISMS), including all policies, procedures, plans, processes, practices, roles, responsibilities, resources and structures that are used to protect and preserve information. Based on Evisions’ ISMS, ISO 27001 certification applies to all processes of operating and supporting the Evisions Research Suite platform, including people, systems and infrastructures in the company’s offices and datacenters. About Evisions, Inc. Evisions develops innovative, easy–to–use software supported by world-class customer support to simplify work for higher education institutions and research organizations. Evisions is transforming the face of electronic Research Administration by producing intuitive, SaaS solutions and executing quick implementations. Evisions makes Research Administration easier by increasing office efficiency and rapidly responding to support needs. The Evisions Research Suite includes: Cayuse 424, Cayuse SP and Cayuse IRB. Learn more and join our conversations at http://www.evisions.com/research, Twitter, LinkedIn and blog.evisions.com.
Stanford F.C.,University of South Carolina |
Stanford F.C.,Research Administration |
Durkin M.W.,Research Administration |
Blair S.N.,University of South Carolina |
And 3 more authors.
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2012
Objective: Evidence suggests that the level of physical activity of physicians can be correlated directly with physician counselling patterns about this behaviour. Our objective was to determine if medical students, resident and fellow physicians and attending physicians meet the physical activity guidelines set forth by the US Department of Health and Human Services. Methods: A representative cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted in June 2009-January 2010 throughout the USA (N=1949). Using the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the authors gathered demographical data and information related to physical activity, the level of training, the number of work hours per week, body mass index (BMI), confidence about counselling about physical activity and frequency with which the physical activity is encouraged to his/her patients. Results: Based on the 1949 respondents, attending physicians (84.8%) and medical students (84%) were more likely than resident (73.2%) and fellow physicians (67.9%) to meet physical activity guidelines. Conclusion: Physicians and medical students engage in more physical activity and tend to have a lower BMI than the general population. Resident and fellow physicians engage in less physical activity than attending physicians and medical students.
News Article | January 16, 2017
Japan's biggest coral reef is facing disaster from rising ocean temperature with the bulk of it having gone dead due to coral bleaching. This was disclosed by the environment ministry of Japan, which said 70 percent of the corals in the Sekisei lagoon reef in Okinawa has been killed by bleaching and blamed the rising sea temperatures from global warming for the phenomenon. Sekisei is famous as a popular diving spot spread in 400 sq. km (154 sq. mi). Experts affirmed that coral bleaching has expanded to 90 percent of this Japanese coral reef. Media reports also reinforced it by noting that the plight of the reef at the southernmost reaches of Japan is "extremely serious." The ministry updated that it conducted a survey of 35 locations in the lagoon in November 2015 and found 70.1 percent of the coral was dead. Now the color of dead corals has turned dark brown and are seen submerged under algae. Coral bleaching follows when coral loses the algae that live within it from the effects of rising water temperatures and pollution. Coral gets its color from the algae which supplies it nutrients. When bleaching happens, coral loses the supply of food and turns white, and then bleaching hastens. The Japan Meteorological Agency said sea surface temperatures around Japan had been up by an average of 1.07 degrees Celsius in the past 100 years, which is double the global average warming rate. It said that between June and August 2016, Okinawa island's southern part had experienced a temperature of 30.1 degrees Celsius, which was 1 to 2 degrees more than the highest average temperature recorded since 1982. According to some ministry officials, sea water temperatures have somewhat receded since autumn but there is no clarity when the reef is going to recover. Coral bleaching is not confined to Japan alone though its corals are in serious jeopardy. Globally, coral bleaching is destroying precious coral reefs. Scientists are blaming coral bleaching to the long-term trend of rising ocean temperatures with the damage exacerbated by the El Niño effect that started in 2015. The Great Barrier Reef in Australia is also bearing the brunt of rising sea temperatures. Its faster bleaching has been highlighted in many studies. One recent study that examined the patterns in warming and coral bleaching between 1985 and 2012 found that 97 percent of the sites it studied had warming trends with 60 percent showing severe conditions. The study was conducted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Research Administration. It also noted that the frequency with which temperatures reached the threshold levels of bleaching had tripled during the period of study. Bleaching as such does not spell the end of corals as they can still recover if the right conditions prevail. However, persisting warming patterns across the globe are worrying scientists that corals will not get the needed time to replenish. According to sources, the Japanese environment ministry has already taken some action in restoring the region's coral reef ecosystem by instituting a panel in 2007 to work on the task. The Sekisei lagoon had a severe bleaching in 1998, which was a severe El Niño year, and again in 2007. The action points to replenish the coral reefs include the removal of crown-of-thorns starfish that feed on corals and curbing of water pollution from agricultural activities, according to Mari Yamazaki, an expert member of the Environment Ministry's Nature Conservation Bureau. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.
Chisti M.J.,Clinical Services |
Chisti M.J.,Center for Nutrition and Food Security |
Ahmed T.,Center for Nutrition and Food Security |
Pietroni M.A.C.,Clinical Services |
And 9 more authors.
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition | Year: 2013
Presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) as acute pneumonia in severely-malnourished and HIVpositive children has received very little attention, although this is very important in the management of pneumonia in children living in communities where TB is highly endemic. Our aim was to identify confirmed TB in children with acute pneumonia and HIV infection and/or severe acute malnutrition (SAM) (weight-for-length/height or weight-for-age z score <-3 of the WHO median, or presence of nutritional oedema). We conducted a literature search, using PubMed and Web of Science in April 2013 for the period from January 1974 through April 2013. We included only those studies that reported confirmed TB identified by acid fast bacilli (AFB) through smear microscopy, or by culture-positive specimens from children with acute pneumonia and SAM and/or HIV infection. The specimens were collected either from induced sputum (IS), or gastric lavage (GL), or broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL), or percutaneous lung aspirates (LA). Pneumonia was defined as the radiological evidence of lobar or patchy consolidation and/or clinical evidence of severe/ very severe pneumonia according to the WHO criteria of acute respiratory infection. A total of 17 studies met our search criteria but 6 were relevant for our review. Eleven studies were excluded as those did not assess the HIV status of the children or specify the nutritional status of the children with acute pneumonia and TB. We identified only 747 under-five children from the six relevant studies that determined a tubercular aetiology of acute pneumonia in children with SAM and/or positive HIV status. Three studies were reported from South Africa and one each from the Gambia, Ethiopia, and Thailand where 610, 90, 35, and 12 children were enrolled and 64 (10%), 23 (26%), 5 (14%), and 1 (8%) children were identified with active TB respectively, with a total of 93 (12%) children with active TB. Among 610 HIV-infected children in three studies from South Africa and 137 SAM children from other studies, 64 (10%) and 29 (21%) isolates of M. tuberculosis were identified respectively. Children from South Africa were infected with HIV without specification of their nutritional status whereas children from other countries had SAM but without indication of their HIV status. Our review of the existing data suggests that pulmonary tuberculosis may be more common than it is generally suspected in children with acute pneumonia and SAM, or HIV infection. Because of the scarcity of data, there is an urgent need to investigate PTB as one of the potential aetiologies of acute pneumonia in these children in a carefully-conducted larger study, especially outside Africa. © International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.
Johnson A.C.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center |
Greenwood-Van Meerveld B.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center |
Greenwood-Van Meerveld B.,Research Administration |
McRorie J.,Procter and Gamble
Digestive Diseases and Sciences | Year: 2011
Background: Irritable bowel syndrome patients have abnormal visceral perception. Probiotic organisms may produce beneficial effects in these patients by reducing visceral hypersensitivity. Aim: To investigate the effects of the probiotic organism, Bifidobacterium infantis 35624, on post-inflammatory visceral hypersensitivity in rats. Methods: Colitis was induced using intracolonic administration of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid; control rats received saline (day 0). Myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels and colonic damage scores were determined. From days 15-29, rats (n = 10/group) rats were orally dosed with 2 ml of B. infantis ≤ 10 8 colony-forming units/ml or vehicle (MRS broth). A second series of rats (n = 10/group) was dosed in the same manner from days 15-59. The level of colonic stimulation during colorectal distension (CRD) was determined by recording a visceromotor response (VMR) to CRD at 30 mmHg pre- and post-treatment. Post-treatment samples of colonic tissue were weighed, graded for morphologic damage, and assayed for MPO levels. Results: All rats were hypersensitive at day 15. On day 30, hypersensitivity to colorectal distension remained in the vehicle group, but was significantly reduced in the B. infantis group (mean VMR/10 min: vehicle = 15.4 ± 1.0 vs. B. infantis = 7.6 ± 1.0, p < 0.001). A similar, significant effect was observed at day 60. On both day 30 and day 60, tissue weight, colonic damage scores, and MPO levels resembled those of control animals. Conclusions: Oral administration of Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 normalized sensitivity to colorectal distension in a rat model of post-inflammatory colonic hypersensitivity. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.