ReSe Applications

Wil, Switzerland

ReSe Applications

Wil, Switzerland
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Richter R.,German Aerospace Center | Schlapfer D.,ReSe Applications | Muller A.,German Aerospace Center
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing | Year: 2011

Hyperspectral pushbroom imagers are affected by a number of artifacts, such as pixel nonuniformity, spectral smile, and keystone. These have to be taken into account during system correction, orthorectification, or atmospheric correction, as performed in processing and archiving facilities (PAFs). This contribution is presenting an efficient and accurate smile correction method integrated in the atmospheric correction. The proposed technique will be used in the PAF of the German hyperspectral Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program mission. The spectral smile shift across the detector array is parametrized with a fourth-order polynomial function for each channel based on the instrument optical design model or measured laboratory data. Alternatively, spectral smile shifts can be calculated from image data using channels in atmospheric absorption regions. The concept for the time-optimized processor is outlined, and the results are presented for simulated EnMAP data and existing pushbroom imagery [HYPERION, AISA (Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Applications), and HYSPEX (Hyperspectral Camera)]. © 2006 IEEE.

Richter R.,German Aerospace Center | Wang X.,German Aerospace Center | Bachmann M.,German Aerospace Center | Schlapfer D.,ReSe Applications
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2011

Optical satellite images are often contaminated with cirrus clouds. Thin cirrus can be detected with a channel at 1.38 mm, and an established cirrus removal method exists for visible/near-infrared (VNIR) channels in atmospheric window regions, which was demonstrated with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data. This contribution addresses open issues of cirrus correction for Sentinel-2 type of instruments, that is, future spaceborne sensors such as Sentinel-2 or similar instruments. These issues are (i) an extension of the existing technique to account for cirrus during the water vapour retrieval (channel at 0.94 mm) and surface reflectance calculation to avoid reflectance artefacts at 0.94 mm, (ii) a discussion of options concerning cirrus removal in the short-wave infrared (SWIR, channels at 1.6 and 2.2 mm) region and (iii) an analysis of channel parallax (view angle) requirements to achieve a high-quality cirrus removal. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Hueni A.,University of Zürich | Damm A.,University of Zürich | Kneubuehler M.,University of Zürich | Schlapfer D.,ReSe Applications | Schaepman M.E.,University of Zürich
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing | Year: 2016

Field spectroscopy is increasingly used in various fields of science: either as a research tool in its own right or in support of airborne-or space-based optical instruments for calibration or validation purposes. Yet, while the use of the instruments appears deceptively simple, the processes of light and surface interactions are complex to be measured in full and are further complicated by the multidimensionality of the measurement process. This study exemplifies the cross validation of in situ point spectroscopy and airborne imaging spectroscopy data across all processing stages within the spectroscopy information hierarchy using data from an experiment focused on vegetation. In support of this endeavor, this study compiles the fundamentals of spectroscopy, the challenges inherent to field and airborne spectroscopy, and the best practices proposed by the field spectroscopy community. This combination of theory and case study shall enable the reader to develop an understanding of 1) some of the commonly involved sources of errors and uncertainties, 2) the techniques to collect high-quality spectra under natural illumination conditions, and 3) the importance of appropriate metadata collection to increase the long-term usability and value of spectral data. © 2016 IEEE.

Hueni A.,University of Zürich | Schlaepfer D.,ReSe Applications | Jehle M.,University of Zürich
International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) | Year: 2014

The APEX airborne imaging spectrometer has been shown to exhibit spectral shifts during in-flight conditions, linked to changes in the nitrogen gas density within the APEX optical subunit. These shifts lead to features in the recorded spectra caused by the dichroic coating used as a beam splitter between VNIR and SWIR channels. Consequently dichroic features are no longer compensated for by the radiometric calibration coefficients obtained under laboratory conditions. This paper presents results of a numerical simulation that can model the impact of spectral shifts on radiometry. As a consequence the APEX sensor model has been upgraded and according correction functions have been implemented in the APEX level 1 processor to compensate for shift dependent changes in radiometry due to the dichroic coating. © 2014 IEEE.

Hueni A.,University of Zürich | Schlaepfer D.,ReSe Applications | Jehle M.,University of Zürich | Schaepman M.,University of Zürich
Applied Optics | Year: 2014

The generation of well-calibrated radiometric measurements from imaging spectrometer data requires careful consideration of all influencing factors, as well as an instrument calibration based on a detailed sensor model. Deviations of ambient parameters (i.e., pressure, humidity, temperature) from standard laboratory conditions during airborne operations can lead to biases that should be accounted for and properly compensated by using dedicated instrument models. This study introduces a model for the airborne imaging spectrometer airborne prism experiment (APEX), describing the impact of spectral shifts as well as polarization effects on the radiometric system response due to changing ambient parameters. Key issues are related to changing properties of the dichroic coating applied to the dispersing elements within the optical path. We present a model based on discrete numerical simulations. With the improved modeling approach, we predict radiometric biases with an root mean square error (RMSE) below 1%, leading to a substantial improvement of radiometric stability and predictability of system behavior. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

D'Odorico P.,University of Zürich | Guanter L.,University of Oxford | Schaepman M.E.,University of Zürich | Schlapfer D.,ReSe Applications
Applied Optics | Year: 2011

Accurate spectral calibration of airborne and spaceborne imaging spectrometers is essential for proper preprocessing and scientific exploitation of high spectral resolution measurements of the land and atmosphere. A systematic performance assessment of onboard and scene-based methods for in-flight monitoring of instrument spectral calibration is presented for the first time in this paper. Onboard and ground imaging data were collected at several flight altitudes using the Airborne Prism Experiment (APEX) imaging spectrometer. APEX is equipped with an in-flight characterization (IFC) facility allowing the evaluation of radiometric, spectral, and geometric system properties, both in-flight and on-ground for the full field of view. Atmospheric and onboard filter spectral features present in at-sensor radiances are compared with the same features in reference transmittances convolved to varying instrument spectral configurations. A spectrum-matching algorithm, taking advantage of the high sensitivity of measurements around sharp spectral features toward spectrometer spectral performance, is used to retrieve channel center wavelength and bandwidth parameters. Results showed good agreement between spectral parameters estimated using onboard IFC and ground imaging data. The average difference between estimates obtained using the O2 and H 2O features and those obtained using the corresponding filter features amounted to about 0:3nm (0.05 of a spectral pixel). A deviation from the nominal laboratory instrument spectral calibration and an altitude-dependent performance was additionally identified. The relatively good agreement between estimates obtained by the two approaches in similar spectral windows suggests they can be used in a complementary fashion: while the method relying on atmospheric features can be applied without the need for dedicated calibration acquisitions, the IFC allows assessment at user-selectable wavelength positions by custom filters as well as for the system on-ground. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

Weyermann J.,University of Zürich | Kneubuhler M.,University of Zürich | Schlapfer D.,ReSe Applications | Schaepman M.E.,University of Zürich
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing | Year: 2015

The spectral and radiometric quality of airborne imaging spectrometer data is affected by the anisotropic reflectance behavior of the imaged surface. Illumination and observation angle-dependent patterns of surface reflected radiation propagate into products, hinder quantitative assessment of biophysical/biochemical parameters, and decrease the comparability of data from multiple flight lines. The Ross-Li model, originally developed for multiangular observations, can be inverted to estimate and correct for surface anisotropy effects. This requires land cover be stratified into distinct types of scattering behavior. When the observations subsumed in these classes cover a range of view angles, a pseudo multiangular view on the surface can be employed to invert the Ross-Li model. A discrete land cover classification, however, bears the risk of inappropriate scattering correction resulting in spatial artifacts in the corrected data, predominantly in transition regions of two land cover types (e.g., soil and sparse vegetation with varying fractions). We invert the Ross-Li model on continuous land cover fraction layers. We decompose land cover in dominating structural types using linear spectral unmixing. Ross-Li kernel weights and formulations are estimated for each type independently; the correction is then applied pixel-wise according to the fractional distribution. The corrected Airborne Prism EXperiment imaging spectrometer data show significant reduction of anisotropic reflectance effects of up to 90% (average 60% to 75%, p=0.05), measured in the overlapping regions of adjacent flight lines. No spatial artifacts or spectral irregularities are observed after correction. © 2015 IEEE.

Richter R.,EOMAP GmbH | Heege T.,EOMAP GmbH | Kiselev V.,EOMAP GmbH | Schlapfer D.,ReSe Applications
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2014

An accurate atmospheric correction (AC) of Earth remote-sensing data in the spectral region 450–800 nm has to account for the ozone gas absorption influence. Usual operational AC codes employ a fixed ozone concentration corresponding to a climatologic average for a certain region and season, e.g. the mid-latitude summer atmosphere of the Moderate Resolution Atmospheric Transmission (MODTRAN) code. The reasons for a fixed ozone column are that ozone does not vary rapidly on a spatial and temporal scale, and additionally, the look-up table (LUT) size for AC is already big. This means that another degree of freedom for the ozone parameter would dramatically increase the size of the LUT database and the time required for LUT interpolation. In order to account for this effect, we use already existing LUTs that were calculated for a certain ozone reference level, e.g. an ozone column of g = 330 Dobson Units (DU) for MODTRAN’s mid-latitude summer atmosphere. Then the deviation of the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance ΔL(g) from the reference level L(g = 330) is calculated as a function of solar and view geometries. The calculation is performed for a set of 36 wavelengths in the ozone-sensitive spectrum (450–800 nm) and five ozone columns. The last step computes the linear regression coefficients for each wavelength and geometry. The results are stored in a small table (11 kB). It is shown that the ozone influence is accurately accounted for by multiplying the modelled radiance L(g = 330) with a factor depending on g and wavelength yielding TOA radiance relative errors smaller than 0.5% for a wide range of ozone concentrations between 180 and 500 DU. Selected examples of a sensitivity study of the ozone effect on the retrieval of water constituents demonstrate the need to account for ozone in the AC step. © 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

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