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Hueni A.,University of Zurich | Schlaepfer D.,ReSe Applications | Jehle M.,University of Zurich
International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS)

The APEX airborne imaging spectrometer has been shown to exhibit spectral shifts during in-flight conditions, linked to changes in the nitrogen gas density within the APEX optical subunit. These shifts lead to features in the recorded spectra caused by the dichroic coating used as a beam splitter between VNIR and SWIR channels. Consequently dichroic features are no longer compensated for by the radiometric calibration coefficients obtained under laboratory conditions. This paper presents results of a numerical simulation that can model the impact of spectral shifts on radiometry. As a consequence the APEX sensor model has been upgraded and according correction functions have been implemented in the APEX level 1 processor to compensate for shift dependent changes in radiometry due to the dichroic coating. © 2014 IEEE. Source

D'Odorico P.,University of Zurich | Guanter L.,University of Oxford | Schaepman M.E.,University of Zurich | Schlapfer D.,ReSe Applications
Applied Optics

Accurate spectral calibration of airborne and spaceborne imaging spectrometers is essential for proper preprocessing and scientific exploitation of high spectral resolution measurements of the land and atmosphere. A systematic performance assessment of onboard and scene-based methods for in-flight monitoring of instrument spectral calibration is presented for the first time in this paper. Onboard and ground imaging data were collected at several flight altitudes using the Airborne Prism Experiment (APEX) imaging spectrometer. APEX is equipped with an in-flight characterization (IFC) facility allowing the evaluation of radiometric, spectral, and geometric system properties, both in-flight and on-ground for the full field of view. Atmospheric and onboard filter spectral features present in at-sensor radiances are compared with the same features in reference transmittances convolved to varying instrument spectral configurations. A spectrum-matching algorithm, taking advantage of the high sensitivity of measurements around sharp spectral features toward spectrometer spectral performance, is used to retrieve channel center wavelength and bandwidth parameters. Results showed good agreement between spectral parameters estimated using onboard IFC and ground imaging data. The average difference between estimates obtained using the O2 and H 2O features and those obtained using the corresponding filter features amounted to about 0:3nm (0.05 of a spectral pixel). A deviation from the nominal laboratory instrument spectral calibration and an altitude-dependent performance was additionally identified. The relatively good agreement between estimates obtained by the two approaches in similar spectral windows suggests they can be used in a complementary fashion: while the method relying on atmospheric features can be applied without the need for dedicated calibration acquisitions, the IFC allows assessment at user-selectable wavelength positions by custom filters as well as for the system on-ground. © 2011 Optical Society of America. Source

Hueni A.,University of Zurich | Schlaepfer D.,ReSe Applications | Jehle M.,University of Zurich | Schaepman M.,University of Zurich
Applied Optics

The generation of well-calibrated radiometric measurements from imaging spectrometer data requires careful consideration of all influencing factors, as well as an instrument calibration based on a detailed sensor model. Deviations of ambient parameters (i.e., pressure, humidity, temperature) from standard laboratory conditions during airborne operations can lead to biases that should be accounted for and properly compensated by using dedicated instrument models. This study introduces a model for the airborne imaging spectrometer airborne prism experiment (APEX), describing the impact of spectral shifts as well as polarization effects on the radiometric system response due to changing ambient parameters. Key issues are related to changing properties of the dichroic coating applied to the dispersing elements within the optical path. We present a model based on discrete numerical simulations. With the improved modeling approach, we predict radiometric biases with an root mean square error (RMSE) below 1%, leading to a substantial improvement of radiometric stability and predictability of system behavior. © 2014 Optical Society of America. Source

Richter R.,EOMAP GmbH | Heege T.,EOMAP GmbH | Kiselev V.,EOMAP GmbH | Schlapfer D.,ReSe Applications
International Journal of Remote Sensing

An accurate atmospheric correction (AC) of Earth remote-sensing data in the spectral region 450–800 nm has to account for the ozone gas absorption influence. Usual operational AC codes employ a fixed ozone concentration corresponding to a climatologic average for a certain region and season, e.g. the mid-latitude summer atmosphere of the Moderate Resolution Atmospheric Transmission (MODTRAN) code. The reasons for a fixed ozone column are that ozone does not vary rapidly on a spatial and temporal scale, and additionally, the look-up table (LUT) size for AC is already big. This means that another degree of freedom for the ozone parameter would dramatically increase the size of the LUT database and the time required for LUT interpolation. In order to account for this effect, we use already existing LUTs that were calculated for a certain ozone reference level, e.g. an ozone column of g = 330 Dobson Units (DU) for MODTRAN’s mid-latitude summer atmosphere. Then the deviation of the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance ΔL(g) from the reference level L(g = 330) is calculated as a function of solar and view geometries. The calculation is performed for a set of 36 wavelengths in the ozone-sensitive spectrum (450–800 nm) and five ozone columns. The last step computes the linear regression coefficients for each wavelength and geometry. The results are stored in a small table (11 kB). It is shown that the ozone influence is accurately accounted for by multiplying the modelled radiance L(g = 330) with a factor depending on g and wavelength yielding TOA radiance relative errors smaller than 0.5% for a wide range of ozone concentrations between 180 and 500 DU. Selected examples of a sensitivity study of the ozone effect on the retrieval of water constituents demonstrate the need to account for ozone in the AC step. © 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source

Richter R.,German Aerospace Center | Schlapfer D.,ReSe Applications | Muller A.,German Aerospace Center
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing

Hyperspectral pushbroom imagers are affected by a number of artifacts, such as pixel nonuniformity, spectral smile, and keystone. These have to be taken into account during system correction, orthorectification, or atmospheric correction, as performed in processing and archiving facilities (PAFs). This contribution is presenting an efficient and accurate smile correction method integrated in the atmospheric correction. The proposed technique will be used in the PAF of the German hyperspectral Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program mission. The spectral smile shift across the detector array is parametrized with a fourth-order polynomial function for each channel based on the instrument optical design model or measured laboratory data. Alternatively, spectral smile shifts can be calculated from image data using channels in atmospheric absorption regions. The concept for the time-optimized processor is outlined, and the results are presented for simulated EnMAP data and existing pushbroom imagery [HYPERION, AISA (Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Applications), and HYSPEX (Hyperspectral Camera)]. © 2006 IEEE. Source

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