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Alibek K.,Nazarbayev University | Alibek K.,Republican Scientific Center for Emergency Care | Karatayeva N.,Nazarbayev University | Bekniyazov I.,Nazarbayev University
Infectious Agents and Cancer | Year: 2012

Since the late 1990s, infectious agents have been thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of approximately 15% of cancers. It is now widely accepted that infection of stomach tissue with the bacteria Helicobacter pylori is an important cause of stomach adenocarcinoma. In addition, oncogenic viruses, such as papilloma viruses, herpes viruses, and hepadnaviruses are strongly associated with increased risk of cervical cancer, lymphomas, liver cancer, amongst others. However, in the scientific community the percentage of cancers caused by pathogens is believed to be far higher than 15%. A significant volume of data collected to date show an association between infectious agents and urogenital cancers. These agents include Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea, Mycoplasma genitalium and certain viruses that have been implicated in ovarian cancer. Other pathogens include the hepatitis C and Epstein-Barr viruses, which are potentially involved in kidney cancer. In addition, infections with Schistosoma haematobium, the human papillomavirus, and human polyomaviruses are strongly associated with an increased risk of urinary bladder cancer. This article reviews publications available to date on the role of infectious agents in urogenital cancers. A greater understanding of the role of such agents could aid the identification of novel methods of urogenital cancer treatment. © 2012 Alibek et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Aituov B.,Nazarbayev University | Duisembekova A.,Nazarbayev University | Bulenova A.,Nazarbayev University | Alibek K.,Nazarbayev University | Alibek K.,Republican Scientific Center for Emergency Care
Infectious Agents and Cancer | Year: 2012

The regulation of cancerous tumor development is converged upon by multiple pathways and factors. Besides environmental factors, gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancer can be caused by chronic inflammation, which is generally induced by bacteria, viruses, and parasites. The role of these inducers in cancer development, cell differentiation and transformation, cell cycle deregulation, and in the expression of tumor-associated genes cannot be ignored. Although Helicobacter pylori activates many oncogenic pathways, particularly those in gastric and colorectal cancers, the role of viruses in tumor development is also significant. Viruses possess significant oncogenic potential to interfere with normal cell cycle control and genome stability, stimulating the growth of deregulated cells. An increasing amount of recent data also implies the association of GI cancers with bacterial colonization and viruses. This review focuses on host-cell interactions that facilitate primary mechanisms of tumorigenesis and provides new insights into novel GI cancer treatments. © 2012 Aituov et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Alibek K.,Nazarbayev University | Alibek K.,Republican Scientific Center for Emergency Care | Kakpenova A.,Nazarbayev University | Baiken Y.,Nazarbayev University
Infectious Agents and Cancer | Year: 2013

This review concentrates on tumours that are anatomically localised in head and neck regions. Brain cancers and head and neck cancers together account for more than 873,000 cases annually worldwide, with an increasing incidence each year. With poor survival rates at late stages, brain and head and neck cancers represent serious conditions. Carcinogenesis is a multi-step process and the role of infectious agents in this progression has not been fully identified. A major problem with such research is that the role of many infectious agents may be underestimated due to the lack of or inconsistency in experimental data obtained globally. In the case of brain cancer, no infection has been accepted as directly oncogenic, although a number of viruses and parasites are associated with the malignancy. Our analysis of the literature showed the presence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in distinct types of brain tumour, namely glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and medulloblastoma. In particular, there are reports of viral protein in up to 100% of GBM specimens. Several epidemiological studies reported associations of brain cancer and toxoplasmosis seropositivity. In head and neck cancers, there is a distinct correlation between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Considering that almost every undifferentiated NPC is EBV-positive, virus titer levels can be measured to screen high-risk populations. In addition there is an apparent association between human papilloma virus (HPV) and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); specifically, 26% of HNSCCs are positive for HPV. HPV type 16 was the most common type detected in HNSCCs (90%) and its dominance is even greater than that reported in cervical carcinoma. Although there are many studies showing an association of infectious agents with cancer, with various levels of involvement and either a direct or indirect causative effect, there is a scarcity of articles covering the role of infection in carcinogenesis of brain and head and neck cancers. We review recent studies on the infectious origin of these cancers and present our current understanding of carcinogenic mechanisms, thereby providing possible novel approaches to cancer treatment. © 2013 Alibek et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Alibek K.,Nazarbayev University | Alibek K.,Republican Scientific Center for Emergency Care | Bekmurzayeva A.,Nazarbayev University | Mussabekova A.,Nazarbayev University | Sultankulov B.,Nazarbayev University
Infectious Agents and Cancer | Year: 2012

Recent clinical and pre-clinical data demonstrate that adjuvant antimicrobial therapy is beneficial in cancer treatment. There could be several reasons for this effect, which include treating cancer associated bacteria and viruses, prophylaxis of post-chemotherapy infections due to immunosuppression, and antiproliferative effect of certain antimicrobials. Targeting cancer associated viruses and bacteria with antimicrobial agents is currently used for gastric, cervical, hematopoietic, liver and brain cancer. However this treatment is effective only in combination with conventional therapies. Antimicrobials can also have a direct antiproliferative and cytotoxic effect, and can cause apoptosis. Moreover, some antimicrobials are known to be helpful in overcoming side effects of drugs commonly used in cancer treatment. Chemotherapy related bacteremia and neutropenia can be overcome by the appropriately timed use of antimicrobials. This review summarizes the data on the effects of antivirals and antibiotics on cancer treatment and describes their mechanisms. © 2012 Alibek et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Oshakbayev K.P.,Republican Scientific Center for Emergency Medicine | Alibek K.,Republican Scientific Center for Emergency Medicine | Olegovich Ponomarev I.,Republican Scientific Center for Emergency Medicine | Nurlanovich Uderbayev N.,Republican Scientific Center for Emergency Care | Abayevna Dukenbayeva B.,Astana Medical University
American Journal of Case Reports | Year: 2014

Background: The aim of this case report is to present the results of treatment of end-stage ovarian carcinoma in a 41-yearold women using weight loss therapy. Case Report: We describe the case of a female aged 41 years with epithelial invasive ovarian cancer of III-IV stage, T3N2M1. Concurrent diseases were: Abdominal carcinomatosis; hepatomegaly; ascites; condition after laparocentesis and skin-abdominal fistula; condition after 6 courses of neo-adjuvant polychemotherapy; hypertension II stage, risk factor of 3-4; dyslipidemia; and metabolic syndrome. A weight loss method based on a very-low-calorie diet and physical activity was used. Body weight was reduced from 74 kg to 53 due to loss of adipose tissue after 6 months of therapy. At the same time, the percentages of water and muscle tissue were increased significantly. While overweight was reducing, clinical, laboratory, and instrumental results were improving. As a result of the weight loss therapy, about »100 mm-sized ovarian cancer was transformed into smaller-sized ovarian cysts. Conclusions: An analgesic effect was also achieved without use of narcotic or non-narcotic analgesics. These cyto-reversible processes were documented by laboratory and instrumental data. The mechanisms behind these differences remain to be elucidated. Future research with a larger study cohort and longer follow-up is needed to further investigate the role of caloric restriction diet in cancer cell changes in ovarian cancer. © Am J Case Rep, 2014.

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