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Kazlouskaya Z.A.,Republican Research and Production Unitary Enterprise | Marchuk Y.G.,Republican Research and Production Unitary Enterprise
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

One of the main aims of apple breeding in Belarus is resistance to disease. Increase of damage caused by nectria canker (Neonectria galligena (Bres.) Rossman et Sammels) in apple orchards of Belarus was an incentive to start a wide evaluation of genotypes for resistance to this disease. The resistance to nectria canker was investigated within the collection of apple species, hybrids and cultivars, under field and artificial conditions. It was found that all the accessions studied were infected by N. galligena, however, considerable differences in damage intensity between cultivars and hybrids were noted. As a result of these studies, the following cultivars and hybrids were selected as field resistant or tolerant: 'Bananovoye', 'Belorusskii sinap', 'Imant', 'Minskoye', 'Sinap Belsad', 'Belorusskoye sladkoye', 'Pamyat Syubarovoi', 'Borovinka', 'Peppin Litowskii', 'Pepinka zolotistaya', 'Fameuse', 'Liberty', 84-125/39, 85-2/25 and some offspring of M. sieboldii. 'Belorusskii sinap', 'Belorusskoye sladkoye', 'Imant', 'Pamyat Syubarovoi', 'Pamyat Sikory', 'Syabryna' and the hybrid 84-125/39 proved to be very resistant to N. galligena under conditions of artificial inoculation. From the studied plant material some accessions have been selected that are characterized by a multiple resistance to nectria canker, scab, powdery mildew and Phyllosticta sp. This is very important for future apple breeding. Source

Kazlouskaya Z.A.,Republican Research and Production Unitary Enterprise | Ustinau U.M.,Republican Research and Production Unitary Enterprise
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

There are results of grape introduction, study and perspective of cultivation in Belarus. The innovation of the research work is the assessment of the value of cultivars of different geographic regions and genetic origin in survey conditions for grape. The collections include over 300 accessions. The climate of Belarus is moderately warm and moist and is influenced by Atlantic and Arctic air masses. Thus in spring and autumn the weather is unstable. The growing season between May and October is 180-190 days. Total of active temperatures above 10°C ranges between 2000-2200°C (in cold years - 1650-1850°C, in hot ones - 2400-2600°C). According to the results of the analyses of weather conditions main factors limiting a stabilized grape plant yield in different regions of the Belarus were found. It was determined that screening of optimum correlation of cultivars for corresponding territories should include the evaluation of their frost resistance at different stages of wintering and the sum of active temperatures above +10°C during the vegetative period. Promising grape cultivars were selected for industrial production as for table use and as wine. Source

Kazlouskaya Z.A.,Republican Research and Production Unitary Enterprise | Samus V.A.,Republican Research and Production Unitary Enterprise
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

The climate of Belarus presents special challenges to orchard growers of cold winters and a short growing season. Essential rootstock characteristics are winter hardiness, ability to be easily propagated, precocity and productivity in orchards. Since the 1960s the selection of dwarfing clonal apple and pear rootstock has been carried out at Brest Agricultural Experimental Station (AES) and Grodno AES. Later work was done at Belarusian Research Institute for Fruit Growing (Minsk reg.) including selection of dwarfing clonal plum and cherry rootstocks. Successful collaboration between our Institute and different Russian Research Centers (Barnaul, Krymsk, Michurinsk, Voronezh, Orel, etc.) resulted in a large collection of diverse fruit rootstocks. The most recent stage of evaluation of fruit rootstocks started in 1990s. This research was conducted on: 77 accessions of apple, 86 of pear, 27 of plum, and 38 of cherry. Using a complex set of indices we have selected 7 new rootstocks for apple, 2 for pear, 4 for plum, and 4 for cherry as promising for cultivation in Belarus. Source

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