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Ismayilova R.,Republican Anti Plague Station | Nasirova E.,U.S. Army | Hanou C.,U.S. Army | Rivard R.G.,U.S. Army | Bautista C.T.,U.S. Army
Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2014

Brucellosis infection is a multisystem disease, with a broad spectrum of symptoms. We investigated the existence of clusters of infected patients according to their clinical presentation. Using national surveillance data from the Electronic-Integrated Disease Surveillance System, we applied a latent class cluster (LCC) analysis on symptoms to determine clusters of brucellosis cases. A total of 454 cases reported between July 2011 and July 2013 were analyzed. LCC identified a two-cluster model and the Vuong-Lo-Mendell-Rubin likelihood ratio supported the cluster model. Brucellosis cases in the second cluster (19%) reported higher percentages of poly-lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, arthritis, myositis, and neuritis and changes in liver function tests compared to cases of the first cluster. Patients in the second cluster had a severe brucellosis disease course and were associated with longer delay in seeking medical attention. Moreover, most of them were from Beylagan, a region focused on sheep and goat livestock production in south-central Azerbaijan. Patients in cluster 2 accounted for one-quarter of brucellosis cases and had a more severe clinical presentation. Delay in seeking medical care may explain severe illness. Future work needs to determine the factors that influence brucellosis case seeking and identify brucellosis species, particularly among cases from Beylagan. © 2014 Rita Ismayilova et al. Source


Gurbanov S.,Republican Anti Plague Station
EcoHealth | Year: 2011

Cholera, a waterborne disease caused by Vibrio cholerae, is an autochthonous member of the aquatic environment and predominantly reported from developing countries. Technical reports and proceedings were reviewed to determine the relationship between occurrence of V. cholerae in natural waters, including sources of municipal water, and cases of cholera in Azerbaijan. Water samples collected from different environmental sources from 1970 to 1998 were tested for V. cholerae and 0.73% (864/117,893) were positive. The results showed that in April of each year, when the air temperature rose by approximately 5°C, V. cholerae could be isolated. With each increase in air temperature, 6-8 weeks after, impact on cases of cholera was recorded. The incidence of cholera peaked when the air temperature reached >25°C during the month of September. It is concluded that a distinct seasonality in cholera incidence exists in Azerbaijan, with increased occurrence during warmer months. Source


Zeynalova S.,Republican Veterinary Laboratory | Shikhiyev M.,State Veterinary Service | Aliyeva T.,State Scientific Control Institute for Veterinary Preparations | Ismayilova R.,Republican Anti Plague Station | And 12 more authors.
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2015

The Caucasus is a region of geopolitical importance, in the gateway between Europe and Asia. This geographical location makes the region equally important in the epidemiology and control of transboundary infectious diseases such as rabies. Azerbaijan is the largest country in the Caucasus, and although rabies is notifiable and considered endemic, there is little information on the burden of human and animal rabies. Here, we describe a cross-disciplinary international collaboration aimed at improving rabies control in Azerbaijan. Partial nucleoprotein gene sequences were obtained from animal rabies cases for comparison with those from surrounding areas. Reported human and animal rabies cases between 2000 and 2010 were also reviewed and analysed by region and year. Comparison of rabies virus strains circulating in Azerbaijan demonstrates more than one lineage of rabies virus circulating concurrently in Azerbaijan and illustrates the need for further sample collection and characterization. Officially reported rabies data showed an increase in human and animal rabies cases, and an increase in animal bites requiring provision of post-exposure prophylaxis, since 2006. This is despite apparently consistent levels of dog vaccination and culling of stray dogs. © 2014 Crown copyright. This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland. Source


Gurbanov S.,Republican Anti Plague Station | Akhmedova S.,Republican Anti Plague Station
NATO Science for Peace and Security Series A: Chemistry and Biology | Year: 2010

A recent history in Azerbaijan of the epidemiology of especially dangerous pathogens is given, with emphasis on brucellosis, plague, anthrax, and cholera. Brucellosis in humans is driven seasonally by the influx of dairy products from rural areas into the cities, emphasizing the importance of domesticated animals as the reservoir. Similarly, livestock are an apparent reservoir for the anthrax bacillus. Conversely, native wild rodent species, both highland and lowland, have been noted as reservoirs for the plague organism. Cholera has a long history in Azerbaijan and also a recent history. Both food and water sources are an apparent vector. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Gurbanov S.,Republican Anti Plague Station | Akhmadov R.,Republican Anti Plague Station | Shamkhalova G.,Raytheon Co. | Akhmadova S.,Republican Anti Plague Station | And 5 more authors.
EcoHealth | Year: 2012

Cholera, a waterborne disease caused by Vibrio cholerae, is an autochthonous member of the aquatic environment and predominantly reported from developing countries. Technical reports and proceedings were reviewed to determine the relationship between occurrence of V. cholerae in natural waters, including sources of municipal water, and cases of cholera in Azerbaijan. Water samples collected from different environmental sources from 1970 to 1998 were tested for V. cholerae and 0.73% (864/117,893) were positive. The results showed that in April of each year, when the air temperature rose by approximately 5°C, V. cholerae could be isolated. With each increase in air temperature, 6-8 weeks after, impact on cases of cholera was recorded. The incidence of cholera peaked when the air temperature reached >25°C during the month of September. It is concluded that a distinct seasonality in cholera incidence exists in Azerbaijan, with increased occurrence during warmer months. © 2012 International Association for Ecology and Health. Source

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