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Gurbanov S.,Republican Anti Plague Station | Akhmadov R.,Republican Anti Plague Station | Shamkhalova G.,Raytheon Co. | Akhmadova S.,Republican Anti Plague Station | And 5 more authors.
EcoHealth | Year: 2012

Cholera, a waterborne disease caused by Vibrio cholerae, is an autochthonous member of the aquatic environment and predominantly reported from developing countries. Technical reports and proceedings were reviewed to determine the relationship between occurrence of V. cholerae in natural waters, including sources of municipal water, and cases of cholera in Azerbaijan. Water samples collected from different environmental sources from 1970 to 1998 were tested for V. cholerae and 0.73% (864/117,893) were positive. The results showed that in April of each year, when the air temperature rose by approximately 5°C, V. cholerae could be isolated. With each increase in air temperature, 6-8 weeks after, impact on cases of cholera was recorded. The incidence of cholera peaked when the air temperature reached >25°C during the month of September. It is concluded that a distinct seasonality in cholera incidence exists in Azerbaijan, with increased occurrence during warmer months. © 2012 International Association for Ecology and Health.


Abdullayev R.,Republican Anti Plague Station | Kracalik I.,University of Florida | Ismayilova R.,Republican Anti Plague Station | Ustun N.,Republican Anti Plague Station | And 2 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Background: Human brucellosis represents a significant burden to public and veterinary health globally, including the republic of Azerbaijan. The purpose of this study was to examine and describe the spatial and temporal aspects of the epidemiology of human brucellosis in Azerbaijan from 1995 to 2009.Methods: A Geographic information system (GIS) was used to identify potential changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of human brucellosis in Azerbaijan during the study period. Epidemiological information on the age, gender, date, and location of incident cases were obtained from disease registries housed at the Republican Anti-Plague station in Baku. Cumulative incidences per 100,000 populations were calculated at the district level for three, 5-year periods. Spatial and temporal cluster analyses were performed using the Local Moran's I and the Ederer-Myer-Mantel (EMM) test.Results: A total of 7,983 cases of human brucellosis were reported during the 15-year study period. Statistically significant spatial clusters were identified in each of three, five year time periods with cumulative incidence rates ranging from 101.1 (95% CI: 82.8, 124.3) to 203.0 (95% CI; 176.4, 234.8). Spatial clustering was predominant in the west early in the study during period 1 and then in the east during periods 2 and 3. The EMM test identified a greater number of statistically significant temporal clusters in period 1 (1995 to 1999).Conclusion: These results suggest that human brucellosis persisted annually in Azerbaijan across the study period. The current situation necessitates the development of appropriate surveillance aimed at improving control and mitigation strategies in order to help alleviate the current burden of disease on the population. Areas of concern identified as clusters by the spatial-temporal statistical analyses can provide a starting point for implementing targeted intervention efforts. © 2012 Abdullayev et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Morris L.R.,University of Florida | Blackburn J.K.,University of Florida | Talibzade A.,Republican Anti Plague Station | Kracalik I.,University of Florida | And 2 more authors.
Applied Geography | Year: 2013

Yersinia pestis is a gram-negative, zoonotic bacterium and the causative agent of plague. Plague is maintained in nature through a transmission cycle between partially resistant rodent hosts and fleas. There are natural reservoir populations on almost every continent, and the number of reported human plague cases has increased in recent years. Azerbaijan is a country at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and western Asia that has a history of environmental plague foci. Informing plague surveillance in this region is imperative due to the deteriorating public health system that resulted from the collapse of the Soviet Union. The aim of this study was to inform efforts to prioritize regions for plague surveillance in Azerbaijan. A 14-year historic data set was employed to analyze the spatio-temporal pattern of the primary plague host in the country, the Libyan gird, Meriones libycus, using the Space Time Analysis of Moving Polygons (STAMP) method. This method is useful for identifying areas of stable rodent abundance across the study period. The relationship between STAMP-defined stable M.libycus abundance and environmental variables including mean temperature, altitude, land cover type and annual precipitation was explored. We were particularly interested in identifying increasing human population trends in the area surrounding regions characterized by historically high M.libycus abundance, as the risk of human plague increases as humans come into close proximity with hosts and vectors. There was variation in M.libycus abundance over the historic period, but regions of stability were identified for each category of abundance evaluated. There were significantly different climatic conditions and land cover types associated with different categories of abundance. The human population in Azerbaijan has steadily increased over the past 30 years, including regions bordering plague foci. Surveillance should be prioritized for regions with historically stable high host abundance, regions with climatic conditions associated with high abundance, and regions with increasing human populations surrounding plague foci. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Kracalik I.T.,University of Florida | Abdullayev R.,Republican Anti plague Station | Asadov K.,State Veterinary Service | Ismayilova R.,Republican Anti plague Station | And 5 more authors.
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2016

Brucellosis is one of the most common and widely spread zoonotic diseases in the world. Control of the disease in humans is dependent upon limiting the infection in animals through surveillance and vaccination. Given the dramatic economic and political changes that have taken place in the former Soviet Union, which have limited control, evaluating the status of human brucellosis in former Soviet states is crucial. We assessed annual spatial and temporal trends in the epidemiology of human brucellosis in Azerbaijan, 1983-2009, in conjunction with data from a livestock surveillance and control programme (2002-2009). To analyse trends, we used a combination of segmented regression and spatial analysis. From 1983 to 2009, a total of 11 233 cases of human brucellosis were reported. Up to the mid-1990s, the incidence of human brucellosis showed a pattern of re-emergence, increasing by 25% annually, on average. Following Soviet governance, the incidence rates peaked, increasing by 1.8% annually, on average, and subsequently decreasing by 5% annually, on average, during the period 2002-2009. Despite recent national declines in human incidence, we identified geographic changes in the case distribution characterized by a geographic expansion and an increasing incidence among districts clustered in the south-east, compared to a decrease of elsewhere in the country. Males were consistently, disproportionately afflicted (71%) and incidence was highest in the 15 to 19 age group (18.1 cases/100 000). During the period 2002-2009, >10 million small ruminants were vaccinated with Rev1. Our findings highlight the improving prospects for human brucellosis control following livestock vaccination; however, the disease appears to be re-emerging in south-eastern Azerbaijan. Sustained one health measures are needed to address changing patterns of brucellosis in Azerbaijan and elsewhere in the former Soviet Union. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Kracalik I.,University of Florida | Abdullayev R.,Republican Anti plague Station | Asadov K.,State Veterinary Service | Ismayilova R.,Republican Anti plague Station | And 5 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2014

We assessed spatial and temporal changes in the occurrence of human anthrax in Azerbaijan during 1984 through 2010. Data on livestock outbreaks, vaccination efforts, and human anthrax incidence during Soviet governance, post-Soviet governance, preemptive livestock vaccination were analyzed. To evaluate changes in the spatio-temporal distribution of anthrax, we used a combination of spatial analysis, cluster detection, and weighted least squares segmented regression. Results indicated an annual percent change in incidence of +11.95% from 1984 to 1995 followed by declining rate of -35.24% after the initiation of livestock vaccination in 1996. Our findings also revealed geographic variation in the spatial distribution of reporting; cases were primarily concentrated in the west early in the study period and shifted eastward as time progressed. Over twenty years after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the distribution of human anthrax in Azerbaijan has undergone marked changes. Despite decreases in the incidence of human anthrax, continued control measures in livestock are needed to mitigate its occurrence. The shifting patterns of human anthrax highlight the need for an integrated "One Health" approach that takes into account the changing geographic distribution of the disease. © 2014 Kracalik et al.


Gurbanov S.,Republican Anti Plague Station
EcoHealth | Year: 2011

Cholera, a waterborne disease caused by Vibrio cholerae, is an autochthonous member of the aquatic environment and predominantly reported from developing countries. Technical reports and proceedings were reviewed to determine the relationship between occurrence of V. cholerae in natural waters, including sources of municipal water, and cases of cholera in Azerbaijan. Water samples collected from different environmental sources from 1970 to 1998 were tested for V. cholerae and 0.73% (864/117,893) were positive. The results showed that in April of each year, when the air temperature rose by approximately 5°C, V. cholerae could be isolated. With each increase in air temperature, 6-8 weeks after, impact on cases of cholera was recorded. The incidence of cholera peaked when the air temperature reached >25°C during the month of September. It is concluded that a distinct seasonality in cholera incidence exists in Azerbaijan, with increased occurrence during warmer months.


Gurbanov S.,Republican Anti Plague Station | Akhmedova S.,Republican Anti Plague Station
NATO Science for Peace and Security Series A: Chemistry and Biology | Year: 2010

A recent history in Azerbaijan of the epidemiology of especially dangerous pathogens is given, with emphasis on brucellosis, plague, anthrax, and cholera. Brucellosis in humans is driven seasonally by the influx of dairy products from rural areas into the cities, emphasizing the importance of domesticated animals as the reservoir. Similarly, livestock are an apparent reservoir for the anthrax bacillus. Conversely, native wild rodent species, both highland and lowland, have been noted as reservoirs for the plague organism. Cholera has a long history in Azerbaijan and also a recent history. Both food and water sources are an apparent vector. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


PubMed | Republican Anti Plague Station
Type: Journal Article | Journal: EcoHealth | Year: 2012

Cholera, a waterborne disease caused by Vibrio cholerae, is an autochthonous member of the aquatic environment and predominantly reported from developing countries. Technical reports and proceedings were reviewed to determine the relationship between occurrence of V. cholerae in natural waters, including sources of municipal water, and cases of cholera in Azerbaijan. Water samples collected from different environmental sources from 1970 to 1998 were tested for V. cholerae and 0.73% (864/117,893) were positive. The results showed that in April of each year, when the air temperature rose by approximately 5C, V. cholerae could be isolated. With each increase in air temperature, 6-8 weeks after, impact on cases of cholera was recorded. The incidence of cholera peaked when the air temperature reached >25C during the month of September. It is concluded that a distinct seasonality in cholera incidence exists in Azerbaijan, with increased occurrence during warmer months.


PubMed | University of Florida, Republican Anti plague Station and State Veterinary Service
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PLoS neglected tropical diseases | Year: 2014

We assessed spatial and temporal changes in the occurrence of human anthrax in Azerbaijan during 1984 through 2010. Data on livestock outbreaks, vaccination efforts, and human anthrax incidence during Soviet governance, post-Soviet governance, preemptive livestock vaccination were analyzed. To evaluate changes in the spatio-temporal distribution of anthrax, we used a combination of spatial analysis, cluster detection, and weighted least squares segmented regression. Results indicated an annual percent change in incidence of (+)11.95% from 1984 to 1995 followed by declining rate of -35.24% after the initiation of livestock vaccination in 1996. Our findings also revealed geographic variation in the spatial distribution of reporting; cases were primarily concentrated in the west early in the study period and shifted eastward as time progressed. Over twenty years after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the distribution of human anthrax in Azerbaijan has undergone marked changes. Despite decreases in the incidence of human anthrax, continued control measures in livestock are needed to mitigate its occurrence. The shifting patterns of human anthrax highlight the need for an integrated One Health approach that takes into account the changing geographic distribution of the disease.


PubMed | University of Florida, Republican Anti plague Station and State Veterinary Service
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zoonoses and public health | Year: 2016

Brucellosis is one of the most common and widely spread zoonotic diseases in the world. Control of the disease in humans is dependent upon limiting the infection in animals through surveillance and vaccination. Given the dramatic economic and political changes that have taken place in the former Soviet Union, which have limited control, evaluating the status of human brucellosis in former Soviet states is crucial. We assessed annual spatial and temporal trends in the epidemiology of human brucellosis in Azerbaijan, 1983-2009, in conjunction with data from a livestock surveillance and control programme (2002-2009). To analyse trends, we used a combination of segmented regression and spatial analysis. From 1983 to 2009, a total of 11233 cases of human brucellosis were reported. Up to the mid-1990s, the incidence of human brucellosis showed a pattern of re-emergence, increasing by 25% annually, on average. Following Soviet governance, the incidence rates peaked, increasing by 1.8% annually, on average, and subsequently decreasing by 5% annually, on average, during the period 2002-2009. Despite recent national declines in human incidence, we identified geographic changes in the case distribution characterized by a geographic expansion and an increasing incidence among districts clustered in the south-east, compared to a decrease of elsewhere in the country. Males were consistently, disproportionately afflicted (71%) and incidence was highest in the 15 to 19 age group (18.1 cases/100000). During the period 2002-2009, >10 million small ruminants were vaccinated with Rev1. Our findings highlight the improving prospects for human brucellosis control following livestock vaccination; however, the disease appears to be re-emerging in south-eastern Azerbaijan. Sustained one health measures are needed to address changing patterns of brucellosis in Azerbaijan and elsewhere in the former Soviet Union.

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