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The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) is a Freely Associated State of the United States of America (USA) of which more than sixty percent of the country's GDP is provided through the Compact of Free Association Agreement. The Compact grant assistance was provided with the aim to assist in the development of the RMI's economy, and establishes the Compact Trust Fund (CTF) for long-term budgetary self-reliance for the RMI Government. Base on the CTF's performance to date, it is anticipated that there would be a financial gap that may be difficult to fill given the limited economic base of the RMI. It is in this context that the RMI Government sees the sustainable development of the deep sea minerals (DSM) industry as the opportunity to bring substantial income and benefits to strengthening national efforts to achieve greater socio-economic self-reliance. However, this will only be possible if proper regulatory frameworks are in place to manage health, social and environmental risk; protect and preserve the marine environment as well as other legitimate users. This determination should allow the RMI to maximize the potentiality of the 'Blue economy' while meeting the targets assigned through the recently adopted Sustainable Development Goals. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

Pilipchuk L.A.,Belarussian State University | Pilipchuk A.S.,REPUBLIC RESOURCES
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2016

For constructing of the solutions of the sparse linear systems we propose effective methods, technologies and their implementation in Wolfram Mathematica. Sparse systems of these types appear in generalized network flow programming problems in the form of restrictions and can be characterized as systems with a large sparse sub-matrix representing the embedded network structure. In addition, such systems arise in estimating traffic in the generalized graph or multigraph on its unobservable part. For computing of each vector of the basis solution space with linear estimate in the worst case we propose effective algorithms and data structures in the case when a support of the multigraph or graph for the sparse systems contains a cycles. © 2016 Author(s).

Doklady Earth Sciences | Year: 2016

Investigation of the distribution of basalts, dolerites, and tuffs in the Kanin–Timan–Pechora large igneous province was completed by generalization of data of geological surveys and analysis of the data of deep drilling. The province appears like a nonisometric ellipse and extends northwestward for a distance of nearly 850 km at the width of 250–500 km. Its area is nearly 285 000 km2. The area of the volcanic rocks is about 85 500 km2. The volume of eruptive material alone could be equal to 1000–1200 km3. The age of formation of the traps corresponds to the late period of activity of the process and was less than 7 mln. y. The formation of the province was result of the action of short-lived and low intensity plumes. But it was one of the episodes of the Late Devonian superplume event in the East European platform. The province is separated by an amagmatic area from neighboring magmatic provinces of the same age. The distance between borders of the provinces is 200–400 km. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Circadian clocks regulate plant growth and development in response to environmental factors. In this function, clocks influence the adaptation of species to changes in location or climate. Circadian-clock genes have been subject of intense study in models such as Arabidopsis thaliana but the results may not necessarily reflect clock functions in species with polyploid genomes, such as Brassica species, that include multiple copies of clock-related genes. The triplicate genome of Brassica rapa retains high sequence-level co-linearity with Arabidopsis genomes. In B. rapa we had previously identified five orthologs of the five known Arabidopsis pseudo-response regulator (PRR) genes that are key regulators of the circadian clock in this species. Three of these B. rapa genes, BrPRR1, BrPPR5, and BrPPR7, are present in two copies each in the B. rapa genome, for a total of eight B. rapa PRR (BrPRR) orthologs. We have now determined sequences and expression characteristics of the eight BrPRR genes and mapped their positions in the B. rapa genome. Although both members of each paralogous pair exhibited the same expression pattern, some variation in their gene structures was apparent. The BrPRR genes are tightly linked to several flowering genes. The knowledge about genome location, copy number variation and structural diversity of these B. rapa clock genes will improve our understanding of clock-related functions in this important crop. This will facilitate the development of Brassica crops for optimal growth in new environments and under changing conditions.

Cvetkovic S.,REPUBLIC RESOURCES | Kalucrossed D Signerovic Radoicic T.,University of Belgrade | Vukadinovic B.,University of Belgrade | Kijevcanin M.,University of Belgrade
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

Biogas is a sustainable and renewable energy source that can provide green energy, a better environment and new jobs. The aim of this paper is to present potentials for biogas production in the Republic of Serbia from different sources (agricultural crops directly provided for energy, livestock residues, municipal solid waste, slaughterhouse waste and wastewater from milk processing industry) and to analyze the current situation in this sector in Serbia. The barriers that limit the wider production of biogas are considered. Results have shown that there is a great potential for biogas production in Serbia. The yearly potentials were calculated as follows: biogas production potential from agricultural crops directly cultivated for energy is 0.85 Mega tons of oil equivalent (Mtoe); potential from livestock residues amounts to 94.13 ktoe; potential from municipal solid waste (MSW) is 49.72 ktoe; potential from slaughterhouse waste is 9.94 ktoe and potential from milk processing industry is 3.21 ktoe. The analysis of incentives, barriers and status of biogas technologies presented in this paper represents a contribution for the further improvement and analysis of the biogas sector in the Republic of Serbia. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

The social inclusion of different rural population groups is one of the objectives of the Rural Development Programme of the Czech Republic for the period of 2007-2013. The fourth axis of this programme is devoted to the LEADER method and, as such, it establishes and supports an inclusive and participative bottom-up approach. This article is concerned especially with a specific social group of farmers and agricultural entrepreneurs, and the position of this group in the local action groups that constitute the National Network of the Local Action Groups (LAGs) in the Czech Republic. With regard to this subject, the role of farmers and agricultural entrepreneurs in LAGs was analysed using a questionnairebased survey and testing a hypothesis of external and internal inclusion/exclusion (see Thuesen 2010) of farmers into/from local action groups. The results show that the level of participation differs in the local action groups, but generally speaking the position of agricultural subjects is decreasing offthe subjects from the different spheres (especially NGOs).

Nie H.,Sinopec | Zhang J.,China University of Geosciences | Li Y.,REPUBLIC RESOURCES
Shiyou Xuebao/Acta Petrolei Sinica | Year: 2011

Through observations, sampling and laboratory analyses of 15 black shale outcrops in the Sichuan Basin and its periphery, we studied shale-gas accumulation conditions of the Lower Cambrian black shale, such as depositional facies, types and contents of organic matter and its maturity, distribution, porosity and gas contents of the black shale etc.. Compared with major U. S. gas-producing shales, the Lower Cambrian shale in the Sichuan Basin and its periphery was characterized by great thickness, abundance of organic carbon, high maturity and elevated gas content, being capable of good geological conditions for shale-gas reservoir development. Some applied indices, such as thickness of the shale, content of organic matter, maturity and gas content, with a superimposition method of integrated information indicated that the most favorable areas for shale-gas accumulations in the Lower Cambrian shale are the southern Sichuan-northern Guizhou-central Guizhou, western Hubei-eastern Chongqing and northeast Sichuan. Based on the measured gas content, the amount of shale-gas resources in the Lower Cambrian was calculated with the volumetric method to be 3.3×10 12m 3~ 11.4×10 12m 3, with a median value of 7.4×10 12m 3.

Russian Meteorology and Hydrology | Year: 2016

Urgent current problems, namely, the climate change and its effects on river runoffare considered. The regional climate change at different altitudes and in separate regions of Azerbaijan is studied using long-term data of hydrometeorological observations. The trend towards the decrease in annual river runoff and peak flood discharge as well as towards the increase in winter (low-water) runoff is observed due to the influence of regional climate change. © 2016, Allerton Press, Inc.

Catalase is an important antioxidant protein that protects organisms against various oxidative stresses by eliminating hydrogen peroxide. In the present study, a full-length cDNA sequence of catalase was cloned from the haemocytes of swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end method. The catalase cDNA sequence contained 1,851 bp with an open reading frame of 1,551 bp encoding 516 amino acid residues. The conserved catalytic active residues His-71, Asn-144 and Tyr-354 were predicted in the amino acid sequence of P. trituberculatus catalase. The deduced catalase protein had a calculated molecular mass of 58.5 kDa with an estimated isoelectric point of 6.90. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of catalase shared high identity of 68-95 % with those of other species. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that P. trituberculatus catalase transcript was strongly detected in haemocytes, hepatopancreas, heart, stomach, intestine, gill, ovary and muscle. The expression level of catalase transcripts both in haemocytes and hepatopancreas changed rapidly and dynamically after Vibrio alginolyticus challenging. These facts indicate that catalase was perhaps involved in the acute response against invading bacteria and was an inducible protein involved in the host innate immune response through elimination of H(2)O(2) in crab.

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