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İstanbul, Turkey

Large strains built up in soils and rocks along a dislocated seismic fault can trigger post-earthquake disasters such as landslides and debris flows, which can cause long-lasting serious problems for rehabilitations and land conservations. Therefore one of what required of us is to deduce as much hidden signs as possible from observable change of landforms for rational rehabilitation strategies. Recent development of remote sensing technologies has enabled us to detect precise landform changes in the Eulerian space. However the description in the Eulerian coordinate system is to be converted to Lagrangian description of displacements to cope with post-earthquake geo-hazards. In this individual study, two examples are highlighted. One is in Uragara Hamlet, Ojiya City, Niigata prefecture in an active folding zone of low-rise mountain terrain, which was affected by the 2004 Mid-Niigata Prefecture Earthquake. An attempt was made to extract Lagrangian components of displacements from available set of elevation data for Uragara Hamlet. The second case study is from the 2011 Fukushima Prefecture Hamadori Earthquake. This normal-fault type earthquake triggered some landslides and rock falls in Iwaki City, Fukushima Prefecture, and there is a concern that they will grow into a serious problem given frequent aftershocks and heavy rains in summer. Much of effort is thus devoted to compile the current exact landforms as the reference for possible future soil/rock mass movements. Source

Asicioglu F.,Republic of Turkey
Klinik Psikofarmakoloji Bulteni | Year: 2010

New psycho-active substances have recently begun to be substituted for narcotics as drugs of abuse. The main reason for this situation is that they are not included in the controlled substance list,despite the fact that they cause psychoactive effects, resulting in their purchase and use without fear of penalty. It has been observed, in recent years, that some psychoactive substances have been traded under the street names of 'herbal drugs,' or 'spices' implying that they are harmless and leading to misinformation about their true content. There are some expressions such as 'incense' or 'nonhuman consumption' on their packets and they are sold by 'smart shops,' 'head shops' and/or web sites. The EMCDDA (European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction) is a European Union (EU) decentralised organisation which has been established to provide science-based information, policy making, coordination, and cooperation among the professionals working in the field of illicit drug use and trafficking. The EWS (Early Warning System) as a subunit of the EMCDDA is an effective means of fast and effective communication among the EU countries. A total of 114 new psychoactive substances have been reported through the system since 1997, and the 24 of them were identified in 2009. The EMCDDA has National Focal Points (NFPs) set up in the 27 EU Member States, and in candidate countries such as Turkey and Croatia. The National Focal Point of Turkey is the Turkish Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (TUBIM). If the EMCDDA decides to bring under its control a new psychoactive substance that has social risks identified by scientific evaluation, the decision is declared and must become effective in all member states by a specific deadline. BZP (Benzylpiperazine) and mCPP (meta-chlorophenylpiperazine) were the last two substances to have been placed on the control list by the EMCDDA. Due to 'universal principle of legality' no one shall be held guilty of possession, use or trafficking of a new psychoactive substance that has not yet been listed as a controlled substance under national or international law. Different procedures are used for adding substances to the controlled lists. There are three kind of classifications used by countries. Generally, countries list the chemical names of controlled substances individually in the national legislation. Legal sanctions are applied only if the substance that has been seized is chemically equivalent to a substance on the list. The generic system refers to the inclusion, usually within the list, of the individual substances under control, and of a precise definition of a group of substances. In the context of the current study, this is over and above the isomers, esters, ethers and salts. The analogue system addresses more general aspects of similarity in the chemical structure of a controlled substance; this aspect might be supplemented by a requirement for similarity in pharmacological activity such as stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogenic effects. Standard procedure is the common way to add a new psychoactive substance to the controlled substances list. This procedure begins with the notification of the Ministry of Health about the new psychoactive substance and continues by scientific evaluation. If the evaluation results in a recommendation for the substance to be banned, a proposal for approval is usually presented to the Council of Ministers or alternatively to the Parliament and/or the Senate. Due to the fact that standard procedure can take a long time, some countries may use rapid or emergency procedures. The basic difference between them is that the rapid procedure is permanent, whereas the emergency procedure is temporary until the standard procedure is completed. If the implementation of the legal procedure for banning a new psychoactive substances is delayed, only drug traffickers benefit. A decrease in the illicit market is expected as a result of listing of a new psychoactive substance in the controlled substance list. Source

Tugrul-Icemer G.,Akdeniz University | Topaloglu A.,Republic of Turkey
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2011

The risk of illness has increased due to humans that affect coastal site quality and contaminated areas, such as knee-deep sand, wave zone and dry sand. Most of the risk is caused by pathogen bacteria. In the present study, microbiological indicators (yeast, molds and Pseudomonas spp.) are monitored to assess microbiological beach quality in central Antalya. The beach sands showed great differences in bacterial colonization during June and July. At stations on Konyaalti beach, the highest concentrations of yeast, molds and Pseudomonas spp. were found both in the seawater and sand zones. Children in particular those of the age group 1 to 5 years, are exposed to considerable pathogen risk. Therefore, yeast, molds and Pseudomonas spp. should be analyzed both at the wave zone and in sand, because these zones are areas of recreational activity for bathers and children. It is also important, in terms of public health protection, to include Pseudomonas spp., yeast and molds in the beach sand indicators at swimming and recreational areas, especially in city centers and frequently used beaches. © 2011 Coastal Education & Research Foundation. Source

Akcay M.E.,Ataturk Central Horticultural Research Institute | Burak M.,General Directorate of Agricultural Research and Policy | Kazan K.,CSIRO | Yuksel C.,Ankara University | And 4 more authors.
Annals of Applied Biology | Year: 2014

The pear (Pyrus communis L.) is a fruit species grown in many temperate regions of the world. Turkey harbours a rich and ancient pear germplasm adapted to diverse ecological regions of the country. The aim of this study was to genetically characterise locally grown Anatolian pear germplasm. We have analysed large numbers (228) of pear accessions originated from six eco-geographically diverse regions using 18 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and identified 308 SSR alleles. Genetic similarities among the accessions examined were generally below 80%. The highest heterozygosity rate was obtained for the SSR locus 'CH02D11' derived from apples and 'KA16' and 'NH0021a' derived from pears. No identical or synonymous genotypes were found, while five homonymous genotypes were identified. Factorial correspondence analysis could not clearly separate different pear accession groups studied, suggesting that Anatolian pear accessions were intermixed possibly due to gene flow and/or germplasm movements between different eco-geographical regions. However, most pear accessions were grouped according to their collection sites in structure analyses. The SSR data reported here for Anatolian pear accessions will be valuable for future germplasm management efforts as well as for comparative studies that investigate genetic relationships of pears from Anatolia and the surrounding regions. © 2014 Association of Applied Biologists. Source

Celebi A.R.C.,Republic of Turkey | Ulusoy C.,Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory | Mirza G.E.,Erciyes University
Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology | Year: 2014

Background: To evaluate the efficacy of autologous serum (AS) eye drops for the symptomatic relief of severe dry eye syndrome (DES), as compared to conventional preservative-free artificial tears (PFAT). Methods: This prospective double-blind randomized crossover study used the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), tear film break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer's Test, and OXFORD Scale at baseline and after each of two 1-month treatment periods to measure the effect of 20 % diluted AS eye drops vs. PFAT in 20 consecutive severe DES patients that were refractory to conventional treatment. Results: The study included 20 (18 female and two male) severe DES patients (40 eyes). Significantly higher TBUT (P∈<∈0.001, Wilcoxon signed-rank test) and a greater decrease in OSDI score (55.18 % decrease in the AS treatment group vs. 19.50 % decrease in the PFAT treatment group) (P∈<∈0.001, Student's paired samples t-test) were observed in the AS treatment group after 1 month of treatment. There wasn't a significant difference in Schirmer's test and OXFORD conjunctival and corneal vital dying grading scores between the two treatment groups after 1 month of treatment (P∈>∈0.05 [Mann-Whitney U test]). Conclusions: AS eye drops were more effective than conventional eye drops for improving tear film stability and subjective comfort in patients with severe DES. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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