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Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the testis is a rare subtype of testicular tumor. While the histomorphology of testicular DLBCL is well described, a paucity of information in the literature exists with regard to the cytological diagnosis of this subtype of tumor. Touch imprint specimens were obtained from a testicular DLBCL occurring in a 64-year-old man. The cytological features of imprints were compared with the results obtained from histological and immunohistochemical examinations. Smears obtained from the touch imprints exhibited a high cellular yield consisting of discretely arranged monomorphic large cells with irregular nuclear membranes, scant cytoplasm and conspicuous nucleoli. Histologically, the tumor consisted of discohesive neoplastic lymphocytes that infiltrated diffusely and produced a wide separation of intact seminiferous tubules. Diffuse, intense immunostaining for CD45, CD20, MUM1 and Ki-67 led to the diagnosis of primary DLBCL of the testis with a non-germinal center B-cell-like phenotype. Careful observation of the touch imprint specimens of testicular DLBCL revealed a high cellularity with a predominant single-cell pattern of monomorphic cells demonstrating irregular nuclear membranes and conspicuous nucleoli. In addition, DLBCL is capable of developing in the testis and forming a predominantly discohesive cell population, suggesting the presence of a lymphoid malignancy. Thus, it may be possible to detect morphological features that are characteristic of DLBCL using imprint cytology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the diagnosis of testicular DLBCL using touch imprint cytology. Source


Park C.H.,Catholic University of Korea | Park C.H.,Republic of Korea Air Force | Lee H.S.,Catholic University of Korea | Chung S.K.,Catholic University of Korea
Cornea | Year: 2014

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of intrastromally injected voriconazole on corneal endothelial cells in rabbits. Methods: In total, 32 eyes of 16 rabbits (8 eyes for each group) were divided into 4 groups according to the concentration of voriconazole [group A: 50 μg/0.1 mL (0.05%), group B: 100 μg/0.1 mL (0.1%), group C: 250 μg/0.1 mL (0.25%), or group D: 500 μg/0.1 mL (0.5%)]. Right eyes were injected intrastromally with voriconazole at concentrations of 50 μg/0.1 mL, 100 μg/0.1 mL, 250 μg/0.1 mL, or 500 μg/0.1 mL. Left eyes were injected intrastromally with isotonic saline as controls. Central corneal thickness and endothelial cell counts were measured before and at 6 hours, 1 day, and 1 week after the injection was given. Corneas were then harvested for transmission electron microscopy. Results: Only the 0.5% group did not significantly recover from corneal edema 1 week after the injection (P = 0.167, P = 0.051, P = 0.086, P = 0.001 in groups A-D, respectively). There were significant differences in endothelial cell counts for the 0.1% and 0.25% groups (P = 0.077, P = 0.019, P = 0.008 in groups A-C, respectively). Transmission electron microscopy evaluation revealed definite necrotic changes in endothelial cells at concentrations of 0.1%, 0.25%, and 0.5%, but only microstructural changes at a concentration of 0.05%. Conclusions: Our results suggest that voriconazole could be injected safely into the intrastromal layer at a concentration of 0.05% with low endothelial cell toxicity. However, injections should be administered with caution because of the risk of microstructural damage. Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Kwon K.,Republic of Korea Air Force | Walker M.L.R.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Mavris D.N.,Georgia Institute of Technology
Plasma Sources Science and Technology | Year: 2011

This work achieves a self-consistent, robust, one-dimensional, macroscopic numerical model of the Hall effect thruster (HET) by dividing the discharge into two domains: (1) a collisionless electron diffusion region and (2) a collisional dominant electron diffusion region. Each region is modeled by governing equations based on the dominant physical characteristics. The solution for the discharge channel is created by matching the regional solutions at a common interface. The point validation for the model shows that the predicted HET performance is within 8% of the measured value. Furthermore, the proposed analysis is quite efficient in terms of a numerical perspective with a conventional PC wall time of 22 s for the nominal operating condition of the SPT-100. In addition, this paper shows that the numerical experiments for anomalous coefficients provide sufficient accuracy for performance metrics, closely matching the experimental data with correct values of the anomalous coefficients over a wide range of anode mass flow rates. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Lee K.M.,Seoul National University | Lee K.M.,Republic of Korea Air Force | Woo S.J.,Seoul National University | Hwang J.-M.,Seoul National University
American Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2013

Purpose: To evaluate the morphologic characteristics of optic nerve head drusen. Design: Retrospective case series. Methods: setting: Institutional (Seoul National University Bundang Hospital). patients: Sixty-one patients with optic nerve head drusen. observation procedure: Visible and buried optic nerve head drusen were identified using funduscopy, whereas homogenous and nonhomogenous optic nerve head drusen were identified using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images. Buried optic nerve head drusen were classified according to the size. main outcome measures: Classification of optic nerve head drusen. Results: Of 99 eyes in 61 patients, optic nerve head drusen were buried in 95 eyes and visible in 4 eyes. The patients with visible optic nerve head drusen were older on average than those with buried optic nerve head drusen (53.3 ± 8.6 years vs 13.5 ± 7.1 years; P <.001) and exhibited larger disc diameters (1643 ± 265 μm vs 1287 ± 185 μm; P =.016). All 4 eyes with visible optic nerve head drusen exhibited hyperreflective borders, which were not found in patients with buried optic nerve head drusen. Of 95 eyes with buried optic nerve head drusen, 64 eyes (67%) showed homogenous internal reflectivity, whereas 31 eyes (33%) showed nonhomogenous reflectivity with lobulations. Large optic nerve head drusen were associated with a small optic disc diameter, nonhomogenous internal reflectivity, a partial highly reflective border, intraretinal cysts, and increased temporal retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. Conclusions: Optic nerve head drusen have a diverse spectrum of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography findings associated with patient age and disc size. © 2013 by Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Source


ABSTRACT: This study was to investigate clinicopathological features including immunohistochemical subtype and radiological factors of primary breast cancer to predict axillary lymph node metastasis (ALNM) and preoperative risk stratification.From June 2004 to May 2014, 369 breast cancer patients (mean age, 54.7 years; range, 29–82 years) who underwent surgical axillary node sampling were included. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed clinicopathological features, initial mammography, and initial breast ultrasonography (US). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate associations between ALNM and variables. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval and risk of ALNM were calculated.Among 369 patients, 117 (31.7%) had ALNM and 252 (68.3%) had no ALNM revealed surgically. On multivariate analysis, four factors showed positive association with ALNM: the presence of symptoms (P < 0.001), triple-negative breast cancer subtype (P = 0.001), mass size on US (>10 mm, P < 0.001), and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category on US (≥4c, P < 0.001). The significant risk of ALNM was particularly seen in patients with two or more factors (2, P = 0.013; 3, P < 0.001; 4, P < 0.001).The estimated risks of ALNM increased in patients with two, three, and four factors with odds ratios of 5.5, 14.3, and 60.0, respectively.The presence of symptoms, triple-negative breast cancer subtype, larger size mass on US (>10 mm), and higher Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category on US (≥4c) were positively associated with ALNM. Radiologically, US findings are significant factors that can affect the decision making process regarding ALNM. Based on risk stratification, the possibility of ALNM can be better predicted if 2 or more associated factors existed preoperatively. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved Source

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