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Shishovska M.,Republic Institute for Health Protection | Trajkovska V.,University of Macedonia

The liquid chromatographic separation of permethrin enantiomers on chiral b-cyclodextrin-based stationary phase has been investigated. All four enantiomers are obtained by using simple methanol and water mobile phase, under gradient mode. The method was optimized and validated. The relationship between temperature and chromatographic parameters: k' (capacity factor), α (separation factor) and Rs (resolution factor) was studied. Van't Hoff's curves for each enantiomer were plotted for temperature range 288-318 K. It was noticed that the response factor ratio of permethrin isomers differ and calculated value is found to be 1.66 (cis/trans, for n = 5). This method has been used for determining permethrin enantiomer ratio for a few samples of working standards and one formulation. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

Dimovska S.,Republic Institute for Health Protection | Stafilov T.,University of Macedonia | Sajn R.,Geological Survey of Slovenia
Radiation Protection Dosimetry

The activity concentrations and distribution of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in soils from the city of Kavadarci, Republic of Macedonia, and its environs were investigated. The purpose of the study, the first of this kind in this region was to evaluate the environmental radioactivity and radiological health hazard, as well as to determine the connection between the concentration of natural radionuclides and the geology of the terrain. A total of 45 surface soil samples were collected from evenly distributed sampling sites. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements were made using a gas flow proportional counter, while the activity concentrations of gamma emitting radionuclides were measured using a high purity germanium detector. The average activity concentrations of . 40K, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs were found to be 546±118, 38.8±14.6, 43.7±18.4 and 41.5±40 Bq kg. -1, respectively. The mean values of gross alpha and gross beta activities were 522±192 and 681±146 Bq kg. -1. The mean total absorbed dose rate in air calculated from the concentration of the natural radionuclides was 67.1±20.9 nGy h. -1, and the corresponding annual effective dose rate outdoors was 0.082±0.026 mSv y. -1. The results of the analysis show strong correlation between the abundance of the natural radionuclides in soils and their geological origin. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

Kochubovski M.,Republic Institute for Health Protection
Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology

The objective of the study was shift from improper to proper management with the health care waste management in FYR of Macedonia. The aim was to avoid potential health adverse effects from risks to health staff, employees from the public enterprises that are transporting and deposit the health care waste and to the people that are doing secondary recycling, as well to reduce the impact to the environment. Since 1999 when it was the crisis with the 300 000 Kosovo refugees that have come to FYR of Macedonia, one third of them remained for more than three months in ninth refugee camps. Amongst the other problems, the problem of appropriate deposition of heal'h care risk waste has aroused. Since then started the process of redesigning the health care waste management according to the WHO recommendations. In 2000 has started the process of incineration of the health care waste from the Health care facilities from the territory of Skopje and Kumanovo. In 2007 has been proscribed a Rulebook for health care waste management. In 2007-2008 has been prepared a Draft National Health Care Waste Management Plan. Source

Kochubovski M.,Republic Institute for Health Protection
Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology

The objective of the study performed in 2001-2005 was to investigate and analyse the relationship between ambient air pollution by lead and blood-lead levels in school children exposed to lead emissions in the city of Veles. The city of Veles, with its geographical position, atmospheric characteristics, urban and industrial concentration, and its improperly located Lead and Zinc Smelter Plant upstream to the north wind opposite to the Wind Rose (north wind is dominant and dispersion of pollutants is going directly to the city), multiplied by inconvenient climate-meteorological, hydrotopographic factors has a huge and continuous air pollution problem. The Lead Smelter Plant, built in Veles in 1973, is located on the north of the city only 200-300 m away from first households. There was statistically high significant difference of the average annual concentration of lead in the ambient air in Veles in 2001, compared to the 2003 and 2004. Registered average annual concentration of lead in the ambient air in 2001 was 89% higher than the recommended value by WHO and EU (0.5 μg/m3). Increased concentration of lead in the ambient air represents high risk factor for the health of the exposed children population in the city of Veles. There was a very high significant statistical difference between the blood-lead levels in the examined school children in 2001-2002, and in June 2003. The difference can be explained by stop of working of the Lead Smelter Plant (20 days without emission), and biological life-time of lead into blood and soft tissues. In 2004 due to stopping of ambient air pollution by lead the blood-lead levels in school children have significantly dropped. In 2005 as a consequence of some periodical lead pollution, there have been registered higher blood-lead levels than the WHO recommended value. Source

Kendrovski V.,Republic Institute for Health Protection | Gjorgjev D.,Republic Institute for Health Protection | Kochubovski M.,Republic Institute for Health Protection | Pollozhani A.,Republic Institute for Health Protection
Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology

Environmental health risk assessment is an essential element in environmental management and an important condition in precise priority-setting to the necessary actions for its sanitation. The industrial chemical plant 'OHIS A.D.' (Ohis) is located in Skopje near the Vardar river. The plant produces a variety of chemical products, and until the 70's in the last century was produced technical hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) mixture and lindane. Regarding human health, the assessments were focused on exposure routes, both direct and indirect ones and estimated by qualitative environmental health risk matrix. OHIS company has accumulated and disposed on site over 15 000 t of HCH isomers. Mercury has been found in the abandoned production facilities (electrolyses plant) in elemental form and in surrounding soil. The indemnified concentration in groundwater is far below the permitted levels and, therefore, not of primary concern. The contamination is limited to a part of the investigated site. Mercury can harm human health and is ranked as one of the top 10 hazardous pollutants, while the situation on OHIS has been assessed as low. Also HCH isomers can be ranked as highly risky to health; the current situation at OHIS allows the ranking low-moderate. A removal of the existing wastes will eliminate the present risk. Source

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