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Vol’no-Nadezhdinskoye, Russia

McClain D.A.,University of Utah | Abuelgasim K.A.,Howard University | Nouraie M.,Howard University | Salomon-Andonie J.,Howard University | And 16 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Medicine | Year: 2013

In Chuvash polycythemia, a homozygous 598C>T mutation in the von Hippel-Lindau gene (VHL) leads to an R200W substitution in VHL protein, impaired degradation of α-subunits of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 and HIF-2, and augmented hypoxic responses during normoxia. Chronic hypoxia of high altitude is associated with decreased serum glucose and insulin concentrations. Other investigators reported that HIF-1 promotes cellular glucose uptake by increased expression of GLUT1 and increased glycolysis by increased expression of enzymes such as PDK. On the other hand, inactivation of Vhl in murine liver leads to hypoglycemia associated with a HIF-2-related decrease in the expression of the gluconeogenic enzyme genes Pepck, G6pc, and Glut2. We therefore hypothesized that glucose concentrations are decreased in individuals with Chuvash polycythemia. We found that 88 Chuvash VHL R200W homozygotes had lower random glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c levels than 52 Chuvash subjects with wild-type VHL alleles. Serum metabolomics revealed higher glycerol and citrate levels in the VHL R200W homozygotes. We expanded these observations in VHL R200W homozygote mice and found that they had lower fasting glucose values and lower glucose excursions than wild-type control mice but no change in fasting insulin concentrations. Hepatic expression of Glut2 and G6pc, but not Pdk2, was decreased, and skeletal muscle expression of Glut1, Pdk1, and Pdk4 was increased. These results suggest that both decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased skeletal uptake and glycolysis contribute to the decreased glucose concentrations. Further study is needed to determine whether pharmacologically manipulating HIF expression might be beneficial for treatment of diabetic patients. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Zhang X.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Zhang W.,University of Chicago | Ma S.-F.,Cheboksary Childrens Hospital | Desai A.A.,University of Illinois at Chicago | And 17 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND-: We postulated that the hypoxic response in sickle cell disease (SCD) contributes to altered gene expression and pulmonary hypertension, a complication associated with early mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS-: To identify genes regulated by the hypoxic response and not other effects of chronic anemia, we compared expression variation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 13 subjects with SCD with hemoglobin SS genotype and 15 subjects with Chuvash polycythemia (VHL homozygotes with constitutive upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factors in the absence of anemia or hypoxia). At a 5% false discovery rate, 1040 genes exhibited >1.15-fold change in both conditions; 297 were upregulated and 743 downregulated including MAPK8 encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase important for apoptosis, T-cell differentiation, and inflammatory responses. Association mapping with a focus on local regulatory polymorphisms in 61 patients with SCD identified expression quantitative trait loci for 103 of these hypoxia response genes. In a University of Illinois SCD cohort, the A allele of a MAPK8 expression quantitative trait locus, rs10857560, was associated with precapillary pulmonary hypertension defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥ 25 mm Hg and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ≤15 mm Hg at right heart catheterization (allele frequency, 0.66; odds ratio, 13.8; n=238). This association was confirmed in an independent Walk-Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension and Sickle Cell Disease With Sildenafil Therapy cohort (allele frequency, 0.65; odds ratio, 11.3; n=519). The homozygous AA genotype of rs10857560 was associated with decreased MAPK8 expression and present in all 14 of the identified precapillary pulmonary hypertension cases among the combined 757 patients. CONCLUSIONS-: Our study demonstrates a prominent hypoxic transcription component in SCD and a MAPK8 expression quantitative trait locus associated with precapillary pulmonary hypertension. © 2014 American Heart Associtian, Inc. Source

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