Nijmegen, Netherlands
Nijmegen, Netherlands

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Kik M.,Dutch Wildlife Health Center | Martel A.,Ghent University | Sluijs A.S.V.D.,Reptile | Pasmans F.,Ghent University | And 3 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2011

In 2010, a mass die-off of over 1000 wild water frogs (Pelophylax spp.) and at least 10 common newts (Lissotriton vulgaris) occurred in a pond in The Netherlands. Haemorrhagic disease with hepatomegaly and splenomegaly was evident. Microscopically, multiple organs presented cells with multifocal intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, in which ranavirus-like particles were demonstrated ultrastructurally. All specimens examined tested positive for ranavirus by PCR. The sequence obtained showed a 100% identity with the one deposited for common midwife toad virus (CMTV). This is the first report of ranavirus-associated mortality in wild amphibian populations in The Netherlands. It is also the first time CMTV or a CMTV-like virus has been reported in these two species in the adult stage and outside of Spain. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Spikmans F.,Reptile | van Tongeren T.,Radboud University Nijmegen | van Alen T.A.,Radboud University Nijmegen | van der Velde G.,Radboud University Nijmegen | And 2 more authors.
Aquatic Invasions | Year: 2013

The prevalence of Sphaerothecum destruens, a pathogenic parasite, was studied in two wild populations of topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva), an invasive freshwater fish non-native to the Netherlands. Using genetic markers and sequencing of the 18S r RNA gene, we showed the prevalence of this parasite to be 67 to 74%. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a high similarity with known sequences of S. destruens. The topmouth gudgeon, which functions as a healthy carrier of the pathogen, is rapidly colonizing the Netherlands, its expansion showing no signs of saturation yet. Both the presence of S. destruens and the rapid dispersal of the topmouth gudgeon are considered to constitute a high risk for native freshwater fish. © 2013 The Author(s).


Spitzen-Van Der Sluijs A.,Reptile | Spitzen-Van Der Sluijs A.,Ghent University | Martel A.,Ghent University | Hallmann C.A.,Dutch Center for Field Ornithology | And 7 more authors.
Conservation Biology | Year: 2014

The inconsistent distribution of large-scale infection mediated die-offs and the subsequent population declines of several animal species, urges us to understand how, when, and why species are affected by disease. It is often unclear when or under what conditions a pathogen constitutes a threat to a host. Often, variation of environmental conditions plays a role. Globally Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) causes amphibian declines; however, host responses are inconsistent and this fungus appears equally capable of reaching a state of endemism and subsequent co-existence with native amphibian assemblages. We sought to identify environmental and temporal factors that facilitate host-pathogen coexistence in northern Europe. To do this, we used molecular diagnostics to examine archived and wild amphibians for infection and general linear mixed models to explore relationships between environmental variables and prevalence of infection in 5 well-sampled amphibian species. We first detected infection in archived animals collected in 1999, and infection was ubiquitous, but rare, throughout the study period (2008-2010). Prevalence of infection exhibited significant annual fluctuations. Despite extremely rare cases of lethal chytridiomycosis in A. obstetricans, Bd prevalence was uncorrelated with this species' population growth. Our results suggest context dependent and species-specific host susceptibility. Thus, we believe recent endemism of Bd coincides with environmentally driven Bd prevalence fluctuations that preclude the build-up of Bd infection beyond the critical threshold for large-scale mortality and host population crashes. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.


Fedorenkova A.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Vonk J.A.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Vonk J.A.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment | Lenders H.J.R.,Radboud University Nijmegen | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2012

Populations of amphibians have been declining worldwide since the late 1960s. Despite global concern, no studies have quantitatively assessed the major causes of this decline. In the present study, species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) were developed to analyze the sensitivity of anurans for ammonium, nitrate, heavy metals (cadmium, copper), pesticides (18 compounds), and acidification (pH) based on laboratory toxicity data. Ecological risk (ER) was calculated as the probability that a measured environmental concentration of a particular stressor in habitats where anurans were observed would exceed the toxic effect concentrations derived from the species sensitivity distributions. The assessment of ER was used to rank the stressors according to their potential risk to anurans based on a case study of Dutch freshwater bodies. The derived ERs revealed that threats to populations of anurans decreased in the sequence of pH, copper, diazinon, ammonium, and endosulfan. Other stressors studied were of minor importance. The method of deriving ER by combining field observation data and laboratory data provides insight into potential threats to species in their habitats and can be used to prioritize stressors, which is necessary to achieve effective management in amphibian conservation. © 2012 SETAC.


Martel A.,Ghent University | Spitzen-Van Der Sluijs A.,Reptile | Blooi M.,Ghent University | Bert W.,Ghent University | And 7 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2013

The current biodiversity crisis encompasses a sixth mass extinction event affecting the entire class of amphibians. The infectious disease chytridiomycosis is considered one of the major drivers of global amphibian population decline and extinction and is thought to be caused by a single species of aquatic fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. However, several amphibian population declines remain unexplained, among them a steep decrease in fire salamander populations (Salamandra salamandra) that has brought this species to the edge of local extinction. Here we isolated and characterized a unique chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans sp. nov., from this salamander population. This chytrid causes erosive skin disease and rapid mortality in experimentally infected fire salamanders and was present in skin lesions of salamanders found dead during the decline event. Together with the closely related B. dendrobatidis, this taxon forms a well-supported chytridiomycete clade, adapted to vertebrate hosts and highly pathogenic to amphibians. However, the lower thermal growth preference of B. salamandrivorans, compared with B. dendrobatidis, and resistance of midwife toads (Alytes obstetricans) to experimental infection with B. salamandrivorans suggest differential niche occupation of the two chytrid fungi.


Tijsse-Klasen E.,National Institute for Public Health and Environment RIVM | Fonville M.,National Institute for Public Health and Environment RIVM | Reimerink J.H.,National Institute for Public Health and Environment RIVM | Spitzen-Van Der Sluijs A.,Reptile | Sprong H.,National Institute for Public Health and Environment RIVM
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2010

Background. Lizards are considered zooprophylactic for almost all Borrelia burgdorferi species, and act as dilution hosts in parts of North America. Whether European lizards significantly reduce the ability of B. burgdorferi to maintain itself in enzootic cycles, and consequently decrease the infection rate of Ixodes ricinus ticks for B. burgdorferi and other tick-borne pathogens in Western Europe is not clear. Results. Ticks were collected from sand lizards, their habitat (heath) and from the adjacent forest. DNA of tick-borne pathogens was detected by PCR followed by reverse line blotting. Tick densities were measured at all four locations by blanket dragging. Nymphs and adult ticks collected from lizards had a significantly lower (1.4%) prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato, compared to questing ticks in heath (24%) or forest (19%). The prevalence of Rickettsia helvetica was significantly higher in ticks from lizards (19%) than those from woodland (10%) whereas neither was significantly different from the prevalence in ticks from heather (15%). The prevalence of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia spp in heather (12%) and forest (14%) were comparable, but significantly lower in ticks from sand lizards (5.4%). The prevalence of Babesia spp in ticks varied between 0 and 5.3%. Tick load of lizards ranged from 1-16. Tick densities were ∼ 5-fold lower in the heather areas than in woodlands at all four sites. Conclusions. Despite their apparent low reservoir competence, the presence of sand lizards had insignificant impact on the B. burgdorferi s.l. infection rate of questing ticks. In contrast, sand lizards might act as reservoir hosts for R. helvetica. Remarkably, the public health risk from tick-borne diseases is approximately five times lower in heather than in woodland, due to the low tick densities in heather. © 2010 Tijsse et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Martel A.,Ghent University | Blooi M.,Ghent University | Blooi M.,Center for Research and Conservation | Adriaensen C.,Ghent University | And 27 more authors.
Science | Year: 2014

Emerging infectious diseases are reducing biodiversity on a global scale. Recently, the emergence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans resulted in rapid declines in populations of European fire salamanders. Here, we screened more than 5000 amphibians from across four continents and combined experimental assessment of pathogenicity with phylogenetic methods to estimate the threat that this infection poses to amphibian diversity. Results show that B. salamandrivorans is restricted to, but highly pathogenic for, salamanders and newts (Urodela). The pathogen likely originated and remained in coexistence with a clade of salamander hosts for millions of years in Asia. As a result of globalization and lack of biosecurity, it has recently been introduced into naïve European amphibian populations, where it is currently causing biodiversity loss. Copyright © 2014 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science; all rights reserved.


Meilink W.R.M.,Naturalis Biodiversity Center | Meilink W.R.M.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Meilink W.R.M.,University of Salford | Arntzen J.W.,Naturalis Biodiversity Center | And 3 more authors.
Biological Conservation | Year: 2015

Genetic pollution of a native species through hybridization with an invasive species poses an insidious conservation threat. To expose genetic pollution, molecular methods employing multilocus data are required. We present a case study of genetic pollution via hybridization of a native crested newt species, Triturus cristatus, by the invasive Triturus carnifex on the Veluwe in the Netherlands. We sequenced 50 nuclear markers by next generation sequencing and one mitochondrial marker by Sanger sequencing for four populations from the native range of both parent species and eleven ponds on the Veluwe. We use three population genetic approaches (HIest, BAPS and Structure) to determine the genetic composition of the Veluwe newts based on all nuclear markers, a subset of 18 diagnostic markers and the complementary 32 non-diagnostic markers, with and without parental populations. BAPS underestimates genetic pollution, whereas Structure is comparatively accurate compared to HIest, although Structure's relative advantage decreases with the diagnosticity of the markers. Data simulation confirms these findings. Genetic composition of the Veluwe ponds ranges from completely native, via different degrees of genetic admixture, to completely invasive. The observed hybrid zone appears to be bimodal, suggesting negative selection against hybrids. A genetic footprint of the native species is present in invasive populations, evidencing that the invasive locally replaced the native species. Genetic pollution is currently confined to a small area, but the possibility of further expansion cannot be excluded. Removal of genetic pollution will not be easy. We emphasize the need for legal guidance to manage genetic pollution. © 2015 The Authors.


Spitzen-Van Der Sluijs A.,Reptile | Spitzen-Van Der Sluijs A.,Ghent University | Bosman W.,Reptile | Pasmans F.,Reptile | And 6 more authors.
Amphibia Reptilia | Year: 2013

In the Netherlands, the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) is at the edge of its geographic range and is restricted to three small populations in the extreme south of the country. Despite the species being listed as 'Endangered' on the national Red List, the situation was considered to be stable. However, from 2008 onwards dead individuals were seen on more than one occasion. A sharp decline in numbers has been observed since 2010 (96%; P < 0. 01), but we were unable to attribute this to any known cause of amphibian decline, such as chytridiomycosis, ranavirus or habitat degradation. The present work describes this enigmatic decline, and we discuss these results in the context of possible causes. © 2013 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.


PubMed | Ghent University, University Utrecht, Reptile and University of Glasgow
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

In the four years following the first detection of ranavirus (genus Ranavirus, family Iridoviridae) infection in Dutch wildlife in 2010, amphibian mortality events were investigated nationwide to detect, characterize and map ranaviruses in amphibians over time, and to establish the affected host species and the clinico-pathological presentation of the disease in these hosts. The ultimate goal was to obtain more insight into ranavirus disease emergence and ecological risk. In total 155 dead amphibians from 52 sites were submitted between 2011 and 2014, and examined using histopathology, immunohistochemistry, virus isolation and molecular genetic characterization. Ranavirus-associated amphibian mortality events occurred at 18 sites (35%), initially only in proximity of the 2010 index site. Specimens belonging to approximately half of the native amphibian species were infected, including the threatened Pelobates fuscus (spadefoot toad). Clustered massive outbreaks involving dead adult specimens and ranavirus genomic identity indicated that one common midwife toad virus (CMTV)-like ranavirus strain is emerging in provinces in the north of the Netherlands. Modelling based on the spatiotemporal pattern of spread showed a high probability that this emerging virus will continue to be detected at new sites (the discrete reproductive power of this outbreak is 0.35). Phylogenetically distinct CMTV-like ranaviruses were found in the south of the Netherlands more recently. In addition to showing that CMTV-like ranaviruses threaten wild amphibian populations not only in Spain but also in the Netherlands, the current spread and risk of establishment reiterate that understanding the underlying causes of CMTV-like ranavirus emergence requires international attention.

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