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Eldar-Geva T.,Israel Multidisciplinary Prader Willi Syndrome Clinic | Eldar-Geva T.,Reproductive Endocrinology and Genetics Unit | Eldar-Geva T.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Hirsch H.J.,Israel Multidisciplinary Prader Willi Syndrome Clinic | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2013

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by an insatiable appetite, dysmorphic features, cognitive and behavioral difficulties, and hypogonadism. The heterogeneous reproductive hormone profiles indicate that some PWS women may have symptoms of hypoestrogenism, while others may potentially be fertile. We describe our experience in the assessment and treatment of hypogonadism in adolescents and adult females with PWS. The study population consisted of 20 PWS females, age ≥16 years (27.3±7.9 years), followed in our clinic (12 deletion, 7 uniparental disomy, 1 imprinting-center defect). General physical examination, pubertal assessment, body mass index (BMI), gynecological examination, ultrasonography, bone densitometry, and hormonal profiles [FSH, LH, inhibin B, estradiol, prolactin, and TSH] were performed. The relevant assessed factors were: FSH and inhibin B, menstrual cycles (oligo/amenorrhea or irregular bleeding), ultrasound findings (endometrial thickness, uterine/ovarian abnormalities), BMI, bone densitometry, and patient/caregivers attitude. We classified seven women with inhibin B >20ng/ml as potentially fertile. Following the assessment of the above factors, we recommended the individual-specific treatment; contraceptive pills, intra-uterine device, estrogen/progesterone replacement, and cyclic progesterone, in 3, 1, 4, and 1 patients, respectively. Four patients did not follow our recommendations due to poor compliance or family refusal. We recommended contraception pills for one 26-year-old woman with inhibin B and FSH levels 53ng/ml and 6.4IU/L; however, she refused treatment, conceived spontaneously and had an abortion. Guidelines for hormonal replacement therapy in PWS need to be tailored individually depending on physical development, hormonal profiles, bone density, and emotional and social needs of each PWS adolescent and adult. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Hyman J.H.,IVF Unit | Margalioth E.J.,IVF Unit | Rabinowitz R.,Ultrasound Unit | Rabinowitz R.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | And 8 more authors.
European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology | Year: 2013

Objective: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation for poor responders may improve ovarian response and IVF treatment outcome. This study aimed to determine the mechanism of action of DHEA, and specifically, the stage of folliculogenesis influenced by DHEA. Study design: This is a prospective, self-controlled study of poor responders to IVF treatment, comparing day 3 biochemical (anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), inhibin B and FSH) and ultrasound (antral follicle count (AFC)) ovarian reserve markers and IVF treatment outcome before and after DHEA supplementation of at least 3 months duration. Results: Thirty-two women were included. Following DHEA, there was a significant increase in AFC (P = 0.0003) without significant changes in the baseline biochemical parameters AMH, inhibin B, or FSH. The enhanced response comprised increased peak estradiol levels (P = 0.0005), number of follicles > 15 mm, oocytes, MII oocytes and embryos (P = 0.004, P = 0.00001, P = 0.0004 and P = 0.0006, respectively) and oocytes number/total FSH dose (P = 0.0009). The proportion of cancelled cycles due to very poor response decreased significantly (P = 0.02). Conclusions: DHEA does not appear to exert influence via recruitment of pre-antral or very small antral follicles (no change in AMH and inhibin B) but rather by rescue from atresia of small antral follicles (increased AFC). © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Hirsch H.J.,Neuropediatric Unit | Gross I.,Hadassah Hospital | Pollak Y.,Neuropediatric Unit | Pollak Y.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Context. Hyperphagia, low resting energy expenditure, and abnormal body composition contribute to severe obesity in Prader Willi syndrome (PWS). Irisin, a circulating myokine, stimulates "browning" of white adipose tissue resulting in increased energy expenditure and improved insulin sensitivity. Irisin has not been previously studied in PWS. Objectives. Compare plasma and salivary irisin in PWS adults and normal controls. Examine the relationship of irisin to insulin sensitivity and plasma lipids. Design and Study Participants A fasting blood sample for glucose, lipids, insulin, leptin, adinopectin, and irisin was obtained from 22 PWS adults and 54 healthy BMI-matched volunteers. Saliva was collected for irisin assay in PWS and controls. Results. Fasting glucose (77±9 vs 83±7mg/dl, p = 0.004), insulin (4.1±2.0 vs 7.9±4.7μU/ml, p<0.001), and triglycerides (74±34 vs 109±71mg/dl, p = 0.007) were lower in PWS than in controls. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was lower (0.79±0.041 vs 1.63±1.02, p<0.001) and insulin sensitivity (QUICKI) was higher (0.41±0.04 vs 0.36±0.03, p<0.001) in PWS. Plasma irisin was similar in both groups, but salivary irisin (64.5±52.0 vs 33.0±12.1ng/ml), plasma leptin (33.5±24.2 vs 19.7±19.3ng/ml) and plasma adinopectin (13.0±10.8 vs 7.6±4.5μg/ml) were significantly greater in PWS (p<0.001). In PWS, plasma irisin showed positive Pearson correlations with total cholesterol (r = 0.58, p = 0.005), LDL-cholesterol (r = 0.59, p = 0.004), and leptin (r = 0.43, p = 0.045). Salivary irisin correlated negatively with HDL-cholesterol (r = -0.50, p = 0.043) and positively with LDL-cholesterol (r = 0.51, p = 0.037) and triglycerides (r = 0.50, p = 0.041). Conclusions. Salivary irisin was markedly elevated in PWS although plasma irisin was similar to levels in controls. Significant associations with plasma lipids suggest that irisin may contribute to the metabolic phenotype of PWS. © 2015 Hirsch et al. Source


Gross-Tsur V.,Shaare Zedek Medical Center | Gross-Tsur V.,Neuropediatric Unit | Gross-Tsur V.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Hirsch H.J.,Shaare Zedek Medical Center | And 4 more authors.
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Background: We characterized the spectrum and etiology of hypogonadism in a cohort of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) adolescents and adults.Methods: Reproductive hormonal profiles and physical examination were performed on 19 males and 16 females ages 16-34 years with PWS. Gonadotropins, sex-steroids, inhibin B (INB) and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) were measured. We defined 4 groups according to the relative contribution of central and gonadal dysfunction based on FSH and INB levels: Group A: primary hypogonadism (FSH >15 IU/l and undetectable INB (<10 pg/ml); Group B: central hypogonadism (FSH <0.5 IU/l, INB <10 pg/ml); Group C: partial gonadal & central dysfunction (FSH 1.5-15 IU/l, INB >20 pg/ml); Group D: mild central and severe gonadal dysfunction (FSH 1.5-15 IU/l, INB < 10 pg/ml.Results: There were 10, 8, 9 and 8 individuals in Groups A-D respectively; significantly more males in group A (9, 4, 4 and 2; P = 0.04). Significant differences between the groups were found in mean testosterone (P = 0.04), AMH (P = 0.003) and pubic hair (P = 0.04) in males and mean LH (P = 0.003) and breast development (P = 0.04) in females. Mean age, height, weight, BMI and the distribution of genetic subtypes were similar within the groups.Conclusions: Analysis of FSH and inhibin B revealed four distinct phenotypes ranging from primary gonadal to central hypogonadism. Primary gonadal dysfunction was common, while severe gonadotropin deficiency was rare. Longitudinal studies are needed to verify whether the individual phenotypes are consistent. © 2012 Gross-Tsur et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Srebnik N.,Reproductive Endocrinology and Genetics Unit | Srebnik N.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Margalioth E.J.,Reproductive Endocrinology and Genetics Unit | Rabinowitz R.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | And 11 more authors.
Reproductive BioMedicine Online | Year: 2014

Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy in adults. There are conflicting reports about its effect on female fertility. This study investigated ovarian reserve and IVF-preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) outcome in women with DM1. A total of 21 women undergoing PGD for DM1 were compared with 21 age- and body mass index-matched women undergoing PGD for other diseases. Ovarian reserve markers, response to stimulation, embryo quality and clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were compared. Day-3 FSH concentration was higher, while anti-Müllerian hormone concentration and antral follicle count were lower in the DM1 group (median, range: 6.9 (1.8-11.3) versus 5.7 (1.5-10.7) IU/l; 0.9 (0.17-5.96) versus 2.68 (0.5-9.1) ng/ml; and 13 (0-63) versus 23 (8-40) follicles, respectively, all P < 0.05). Total FSH dose was higher (5200 versus 2250 IU, P = 0.004), while the numbers of oocytes retrieved (10 versus 16, P < 0.04) and metaphase-II oocytes (9 versus 12, P < 0.03) were lower in the DM1 group. The number of cycles with top-quality embryos and the clinical pregnancy rate were lower in the DM1 group. In conclusion, there is evidence of diminished ovarian reserve and less favourable IVF-PGD outcome in women with DM1. Myotonic Dystrophy (DM) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy in adults. There is evidence of subfertility in males affected with the disease but conflicting reports about the effect of the disease on female fertility. The aim of our study was to investigate ovarian reserve and IVF-PGD results in women with DM. Twenty-one women undergoing preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) treatment for DM were compared to 21 age- and BMI matched women undergoing PGD treatment for other diseases. The two groups were compared for antral follicle count (AFC) and serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels (the best known markers of ovarian reserve and fertility potential), ovarian response, embryo quality and pregnancy and live birth rates. AFC and the AMH levels were statistically significant lower in the DM group. Total medication dose needed for ovarian stimulation was higher, the number of oocytes and mature oocytes retrieved, and the number of cycles with top quality embryos were lower in the DM group compared to the controls. In conclusion, there is evidence of diminished ovarian reserve, and less favorable IVF-PGD outcome in women with DM. Therefore, we recommend advising these women about the possibility of early decreasing ovarian function in order to prevent any delay in reproductive planning. © 2014, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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