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The soil nitrogen reserve was always determined in March in the years 1987-2011; this took place in the 30-50 fields prepared for sugar beet. The nitrogen reserve varies highly in individual years but during the monitored period it decreased significantly from about 150 kg.ha- 1 N at the beginning to recent c. 100 kg.ha -1 N. Nitrogen reserve decreased most in soil layer 30-60 cm, in layer 60-90 cm it remains the same, in layer 0-30 cm it is affected by strong fluctuations depending on the year. Thirty-two field trials with gradated nitrogen application rate were conducted during years 2001-2010. In average the optimal nitrogen rate of this trial series was 62 kg.ha -1 N, however in specific cases it fluctuated in range 0-140 kg.ha -1. Discussion of the results suggests a need to individualize the fertilizing of sugar beet fields based on the soil nitrogen reserve. A high significant dependence between optimum nitrogen rate (y) and soil nitrogen reserve (x) was discovered: y = 141 - 1.218 x + 0.0026 x 2. It is recommended to use this dependence for prognosis of the need of N fertilizer.

Chochola J.,Reparsky Institute
Listy Cukrovarnicke a Reparske | Year: 2012

After bad crops of sugar beet in 1911, there was a great support for the idea of domestic breeding and production of seed. In 1912 Association for Beet Seed Breeding was founded and the construction of Seed Breeding Station in Semčice started. Seed breeding in Semčice was successful, it gradually gained majority in the Czech lands and the seed was even exported abroad. In 1951 the Station was transformed into Beet Research Institute by adding the department of agriculture and protection. Simultaneously, seed reproduction and production were separated from breeding which, together with research, suffered from isolation from the development in the Western world and from the stagnation of domestic beet production. After 1989 the Beet Research Institute was privatized, breeding was acquired by company Hilleshög, technological research by company Řepařský institut (Beet Institute) and newly founded Czech Sugar Growers Association settled in Semčice. During the last period, the quality of beet growing increased, there was a great increase in yields and Semčice beet companies play an important role in this development.

Pavlu K.,Reparsky Institute | Chochola J.,Reparsky Institute
Listy Cukrovarnicke a Reparske | Year: 2014

The study wants to give an overview of and evaluate the data from the meteorological station in Semčice. It attempts to prove whether and to what extent there has been a change of the general character of the weather lately. The study also deals with the influence of these changes on the vegetative evolution of sugar beet.

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