Reparsky Institute

Czech Republic

Reparsky Institute

Czech Republic
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Pavlu K.,Reparsky Institute | Chochola J.,Reparsky Institute
Listy Cukrovarnicke a Reparske | Year: 2016

The influence of early and late sowing and of early and late harvest on the yield and quality of sugar beet was monitored at six locations in Czech beet-growing areas for the time of 4 years. Three locations had different levels of infestation by beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii L. and that is why rhizomania-tolerant variety and rhizomania-and-nematode-tolerant variant were monitored. The interval between early and late sowing was 13 days and between early and late harvest it was 33 days on average. Early sowing (compared to late sowing) has much greater impact on the increase in sugar beet weight than on the sugar content; in the case of late harvest, the increase in sugar yield is significantly affected by increased sugar content. At locations without nematode infestation, the average annual sugar yields are very similar for sensitive as well as for tolerant varieties with the same vegetation period. The decrease in sugar yield due to late sowing (about 13 days) is about 1.7 t ha–1 sugar; the increase in yield due to longer vegetation period in fall (33 days) was 2–2.5 t ha–1 sugar. By converting these numbers to 1 day of the vegetation period it is clear that spring increase is about twice as high. At locations with beet cyst nematode infestation, the yields of sensitive varieties are significantly lower in both cases – compared to non-infested locations and to tolerant varieties. The decrease in yield of sensitive varieties due to nematodes grows with the length of the vegetation period: it is 7.4% for late sowing and early harvest and 15% for early sowing and late harvest. The increase in yield in sensitive varieties at infested locations falls by 0.9 t ha–1 sugar for late harvest. If the varieties are chosen correctly, i.e. sensitive variations at non-infested locations and tolerant varieties at infested locations, the decrease in yield due to late sowing (13 days) is 0.8–1 t ha–1 standard (converted) beet per one day of delay. The increase in yield in the case of late harvest (33 days) is 0.4–0.5 t ha–1 standard beet per one day of vegetation extension. The discussion now concentrates on the possibilities to accelerate sowing and move the beginning of sugar campaigns to later dates. © 2016, Listy Cukrovarnicke a Reparske. All rights reserved.


Pavlu K.,Reparsky Institute | Chochola J.,Reparsky Institute
Listy Cukrovarnicke a Reparske | Year: 2014

The study wants to give an overview of and evaluate the data from the meteorological station in Semčice. It attempts to prove whether and to what extent there has been a change of the general character of the weather lately. The study also deals with the influence of these changes on the vegetative evolution of sugar beet.


Chochola J.,Reparsky Institute
Listy Cukrovarnicke a Reparske | Year: 2012

After bad crops of sugar beet in 1911, there was a great support for the idea of domestic breeding and production of seed. In 1912 Association for Beet Seed Breeding was founded and the construction of Seed Breeding Station in Semčice started. Seed breeding in Semčice was successful, it gradually gained majority in the Czech lands and the seed was even exported abroad. In 1951 the Station was transformed into Beet Research Institute by adding the department of agriculture and protection. Simultaneously, seed reproduction and production were separated from breeding which, together with research, suffered from isolation from the development in the Western world and from the stagnation of domestic beet production. After 1989 the Beet Research Institute was privatized, breeding was acquired by company Hilleshög, technological research by company Řepařský institut (Beet Institute) and newly founded Czech Sugar Growers Association settled in Semčice. During the last period, the quality of beet growing increased, there was a great increase in yields and Semčice beet companies play an important role in this development.


The soil nitrogen reserve was always determined in March in the years 1987-2011; this took place in the 30-50 fields prepared for sugar beet. The nitrogen reserve varies highly in individual years but during the monitored period it decreased significantly from about 150 kg.ha- 1 N at the beginning to recent c. 100 kg.ha -1 N. Nitrogen reserve decreased most in soil layer 30-60 cm, in layer 60-90 cm it remains the same, in layer 0-30 cm it is affected by strong fluctuations depending on the year. Thirty-two field trials with gradated nitrogen application rate were conducted during years 2001-2010. In average the optimal nitrogen rate of this trial series was 62 kg.ha -1 N, however in specific cases it fluctuated in range 0-140 kg.ha -1. Discussion of the results suggests a need to individualize the fertilizing of sugar beet fields based on the soil nitrogen reserve. A high significant dependence between optimum nitrogen rate (y) and soil nitrogen reserve (x) was discovered: y = 141 - 1.218 x + 0.0026 x 2. It is recommended to use this dependence for prognosis of the need of N fertilizer.

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