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Ngeow W.C.,University of Sheffield | Ngeow W.C.,University of Malaya | Atkins S.,University of Sheffield | Morgan C.R.,University of Sheffield | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Anatomy | Year: 2011

Microsurgical repair of transected peripheral nerves is compromised by the formation of scar tissue and the development of a neuroma, thereby limiting the success of regeneration. The aim of this study was to quantify histomorphometrically the structural changes in neural tissue that result from repair, and determine the effect of mannose-6-phosphate (M6P), a scar-reducing agent previously shown to enhance regeneration. In anaesthetised C57-black-6 mice, the left sciatic nerve was sectioned and repaired using four epineurial sutures. Either 100μL of 600mm M6P (five animals) or 100μL of phosphate-buffered saline (placebo controls, five animals) was injected into and around the nerve repair site. A further group acted as sham-operated controls. After recovery for 6weeks, the nerve was harvested for analysis using light and electron microscopy. Analysis revealed that when compared with sham controls, myelinated axons had smaller diameters both proximal and distal to the repair. Myelinated axon counts, axonal density and size all decreased across the repair site. There were normal numbers and densities of non-myelinated axons both proximal and distal to the repair. However, there were more Remak bundles distal to the repair site, and fewer non-myelinated axons per Remak bundle. Application of M6P did not affect any of these parameters. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2011 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

Buckley G.,University of Manchester | Wong J.,University of Manchester | Metcalfe A.D.,University of Manchester | Metcalfe A.D.,Renovo Group Plc | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Anatomy | Year: 2012

The MRL/MpJ mouse displays the rare ability amongst mammals to heal injured ear tissue without scarring. Numerous studies have shown that the formation of a blastema-like structure leads to subsequent tissue regeneration in this model, indicating many parallels with amphibian limb regeneration and mammalian embryogenesis. We have recently shown that the MRL/MpJ mouse also possesses an enhanced capacity for peripheral nerve regeneration within the ear wound. Indeed, nerves are vital for the initial phase of blastema formation in the amphibian limb. In this study we investigated the capacity for wound regeneration in a denervated ear. The left ears of MRL/MpJ mice and C57BL/6 (a control strain known to have a poorer regenerative capacity) were surgically denervated at the base via an incision and nerve transection, immediately followed by a 2-mm ear punch wound. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a lack of neurofilament expression in the denervated ear wound. Histology revealed that denervation prevented blastema formation and chrondrogenesis, and also severely hindered normal healing, with disrupted re-epithelialisation, increasing wound size and progressive necrosis towards the ear tip. Denervation of the ear obliterated the regenerative capacity of the MRL/MpJ mouse, and also had a severe negative effect on the ear wound repair mechanisms of the C57BL/6 strain. These data suggest that innervation may be important not only for regeneration but also for normal wound repair processes. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2011 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

Buckley G.,University of Manchester | Metcalfe A.D.,University of Manchester | Metcalfe A.D.,Renovo Group Plc | Ferguson M.W.J.,University of Manchester | Ferguson M.W.J.,Renovo Group Plc
Journal of Anatomy | Year: 2011

The MRL/MpJ mouse displays an accelerated ability to heal ear punch wounds without scar formation (whereas wounds on the dorsal surface of the trunk heal with scar formation), offering a rare opportunity for studying tissue regeneration in adult mammals. A blastema-like structure develops and subsequently the structure of the wounded ear is restored, including cartilage, skin, hair follicles and adipose tissue. We sought to assess if the MRL/MpJ strain also possessed an enhanced capacity for peripheral nerve regeneration. Female MRL/MpJ and C57BL/6 mice were wounded with a 2-mm excisional biopsy punch to the centre of each ear and two 4-mm excisional biopsy punches to the dorsal skin. Immunohistochemical dual staining of pan-neurofilament and CD31 markers was used to investigate reinnervation and vascularisation of both the dorsal surface of the trunk and ear wounds. The MRL/MpJ mouse ear exhibited a significantly (P > 0.01) higher density of regenerated nerves than C57BL/6 between 10 and 21 days post-wounding when the blastema-like structure was forming. Unlike dorsal skin wounds, nerve regeneration in the ear wound preceded vascularisation, recapitulating early mammalian development. Immunohistochemical data suggest that factors within the blastemal mesenchyme, such as aggrecan, may direct nerve regrowth in the regenerating ear tissue. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2010 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

Gisby M.F.,University of Manchester | Mellors P.,Renovo Group Plc | Madesis P.,University of Manchester | Madesis P.,Institute of Agrobiotechnology | And 5 more authors.
Plant Biotechnology Journal | Year: 2011

Human transforming growth factor-β3 (TGFβ3) is a new therapeutic protein used to reduce scarring during wound healing. The active molecule is a nonglycosylated, homodimer comprised of 13-kDa polypeptide chains linked by disulphide bonds. Expression of recombinant human TGFβ3 in chloroplasts and its subsequent purification would provide a sustainable source of TGFβ3 free of animal pathogens. A synthetic sequence (33% GC) containing frequent chloroplast codons raised accumulation of the 13-kDa TGFβ3 polypeptide by 75-fold compared to the native coding region (56% GC) when expressed in tobacco chloroplasts. The 13-kDa TGFβ3 monomer band was more intense than the RuBisCO 15-kDa small subunit on Coomassie blue-stained SDS-PAGE gels. TGFβ3 accumulated in insoluble aggregates and was stable in leaves of different ages but was not detected in seeds. TGFβ3 represented 12% of leaf protein and appeared as monomer, dimer and trimer bands on Western blots of SDS-PAGE gels. High yield and insolubility facilitated initial purification and refolding of the 13-kDa polypeptide into the TGFβ3 homodimer recognized by a conformation-dependent monoclonal antibody. The TGFβ3 homodimer and trace amounts of monomer were the only bands visible on silver-stained gels following purification by hydrophobic interaction chromatography and cation exchange chromatography. N-terminal sequencing and electronspray ionization mass spectrometry showed the removal of the initiator methionine and physical equivalence of the chloroplast-produced homodimer to standard TGFβ3. Functional equivalence was demonstrated by near-identical dose-response curves showing the inhibition of mink lung epithelial cell proliferation. We conclude that chloroplasts are an attractive production platform for synthesizing recombinant human TGFβ3. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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