Göteborg, Sweden
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Sjoblom R.,Lulea University of Technology | Sjoblom R.,Tekedo AB | Zietek A.,Jonkoping Energi AB | Gaude E.,Miljohantering i Jonkoping AB | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning | Year: 2016

Residues from incineration of waste vary considerably in quality not only depending on the composition of the waste and the incineration system, but also on the extent and duration of contact with moisture and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Lead has a rather varying abundance and an even more varying availability in ash as determined by leach tests. Fresh fly ash from Jönköping Energi AB has a relatively low content of lead in comparison with other similar ashes but a somewhat high leach rate in relation to the total amount. Thus, in determining the pertinent destinations for this ash, it is appropriate to assess the availability after prolonged contact with moisture and air. It was found that the leaching decreased by up to around three orders of magnitude after such conditioning, which will what take place in a landfill over time. The effect was confirmed by pilot tests. The paper also describes the ash chemistry and possible mechanisms for the stabilization. It is concluded that the stabilization can facilitate landfilling. © 2016 WIT Press.


Fedje K.K.,Chalmers University of Technology | Fedje K.K.,Renova AB | Yillin L.,Chalmers University of Technology | Yillin L.,Chengdu University of Technology | Stromvall A.-M.,Chalmers University of Technology
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2013

Soil washing offers a permanent remediation alternative for metal polluted sites. In addition, the washed out metals can be recovered from the leachate and re-introduced into the social material cycle instead of landfilled. In this paper, soil, bark and bark-ash washing was tested on four different metal polluted soil and bark samples from hotspots at former industrial sites. Six different leaching agents; HCl, NH4Cl, lactic acid, EDDS and two acidic process waters from solid waste incineration, were tested, discussed and evaluated. For the soil washing processes, the final pH in the leachate strongly influences the metal leachability. The results show that a pH<2 is needed to achieve a high leaching yield, while <50w% of most metals were leached when the pH was higher than 2 or below 10. The acidic process waste waters were generally the most efficient at leaching metals from all the samples studied, and as much as 90-100w% of the Cu was released from some samples. Initial experiments show that from one of these un-purified leachates, Cu metal (>99% purity) could be recovered. After a single leaching step, the metal contents of the soil residues still exceed the maximum limits according to the Swedish guidelines. An additional washing step is needed to reduce the contents of easy soluble metal compounds in the soil residues. The overall results from this study show that soil and bark-ash washing followed by metal recovery is a promising on-site permanent alternative to remediate metal polluted soils and to utilize non-used metal resources. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Kalmykova Y.,Chalmers University of Technology | Karlfeldt Fedje K.,Chalmers University of Technology | Karlfeldt Fedje K.,Renova AB
Waste Management | Year: 2013

The potential of phosphorus (P) recycling from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residue is investigated. Vast and ever increasing amounts of incineration residues are produced worldwide; these are an environmental burden, but also a resource, as they are a major sink for the material flows of society. Due to strict environmental regulations, in combination with decreasing landfilling space, the disposal of the MSWI residues is problematic. At the same time, resource scarcity is recognized as a global challenge for the modern world, and even more so for future generations. This paper reports on the methods and efficiency of P extraction from MSWI fly ash by acid and base leaching and precipitation procedures. Phosphorus extracted from the MSWI residues generated each year could meet 30% of the annual demand for mineral phosphorus fertiliser in Sweden, given a recovery rate of 70% achieved in this initial test. The phosphorus content of the obtained product is slightly higher than in sewage sludge, but due to the trace metal content it is not acceptable for application to agricultural land in Sweden, whereas application in the rest of the EU would be possible. However, it would be preferable to use the product as a raw material to replace rock phosphate in fertilizer production. Further development is currently underway in relation to procedure optimization, purification of the phosphorus product, and the simultaneous recovery of other resources. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Fedje K.K.,Chalmers University of Technology | Fedje K.K.,Renova AB | Stromvall A.-M.,Chalmers University of Technology
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2015

Excavation followed by landfilling is one of the most common methods for treating soils contaminated with metals. Removing the metals through soil washing not only allows valuable substances to be recovered, but also results in cleaner soil residues. In this project a method for leaching and recovering Cu from polluted soils using acidic wastewater is further developed and evaluated, with special attention to the leaching process. In addition, the qualities of the soil residues are assessed in order to investigate how the proposed remediation method affects the soil properties. Soil samples highly polluted with copper (Cu) were collected from two sites in Sweden. After acidic leaching and water washing, the Cu content of the soil samples was reduced five times or more. The original soils could not even be deposited in landfills for hazardous waste; however after treatment of the soils according to the proposed method, the Cu leaching decreased six-fold and the solid residue was safe enough to be deposited in landfills for non-hazardous waste. The soil function "soil as filter and buffer for heavy metals" was evaluated using the TUSEC (technique for soil evaluation and categorization for natural and anthropogenic soils) manual. Originally the soils were of "low" i.e. class 4 or "very low capacity of binding and buffering heavy metals" i.e. class 5, while after the remediation process, both soils were categorized as Class 5. To summarize, the proposed method clearly shows potential not only for remediation of Cu polluted soils but also indicate a potential for recovery and reuse of Cu from the leachates generated. Even though the previously highly polluted soils could not be directly put back at the original sites, the solid residues could be deposited in landfills for non-hazardous waste, which is an improvement, considering the original soils could not even be deposited in a landfill for hazardous waste. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Karlfeldt Fedje K.,Renova AB | Karlfeldt Fedje K.,Chalmers University of Technology | Ekberg C.,Chalmers University of Technology | Skarnemark G.,Chalmers University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Waste Management and Research | Year: 2012

Large volumes of ash from combustion of municipal solid waste are produced and most of it is landfilled. As this type of ash contains significant amounts of metal compounds the landfilling strategy is not optimal when considered from a resource conservation perspective. A better situation would be created if metals were recovered from the ash. In the present study leaching and solvent extraction was applied for release and separation of copper from municipal solid waste combustion fly ashes. The results showed promising results with Cu yields of 50-95%. The yield was heavily dependent on the efficiency of the initial leaching of Cu from the ash. © The Author(s) 2012.


Fedje K.K.,Chalmers University of Technology | Fedje K.K.,Renova AB | Modin O.,Chalmers University of Technology | Stromvall A.-M.,Chalmers University of Technology
Metals | Year: 2015

Excavation followed by landfilling is the most common method for treating soils contaminated by metals. However, as this solution is not sustainable, alternative techniques are required. Chemical soil washing is one such alternative. The aim of this experimental lab-scale study is to develop a remediation and metal recovery method for Cu contaminated sites. The method is based on the washing of soil or ash (combusted soil/bark) with acidic waste liquids followed by electrolytic Cu recovery by means of bioelectrochemical systems (BES). The results demonstrate that a one- or two-step acidic leaching process followed by water washing removes >80 wt. % of the Cu. Copper with 99.7–99.9 wt. % purity was recovered from the acidic leachates using BES. In all experiments, electrical power was generated during the reduction of Cu. This clearly indicates that Cu can also be recovered from dilute solutions. Additionally, the method has the potential to wash co-pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxy-PAHs. © 2015, by the authors.


Gao B.,Atkins Consultants Shenzhen Co Ltd | Fedje K.K.,Chalmers University of Technology | Fedje K.K.,Renova AB | Stromvall A.-M.,Chalmers University of Technology
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management | Year: 2015

Phosphorus (P) is an essential non-renewable resource and phosphorus recovery from secondary sources has been frequently discussed. In this study, a modified acidic dissolutionprecipitation method was developed for P recovery from sorted municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) samples of bottom ash (BA) and fly ash (FA). The initial experiments revealed that 2 h leaching in 2.5 M HCl optimized P leaching. However, large amount of toxic metals was released. Solid phase extraction (SPE) of the leachates indicated that chelating disks removed the toxic trace metals effectively, but also extracted large amounts of P. For this reason, the procedure was not included in the suggested P recovery process. The P leaching efficiencies, i.e. the ratio of P leached from the original ash, were 30-57 %. The overall P recovery efficiencies, i.e. the ratio of P recovered from the original ash, were 33-62 %. The P content in the final precipitation products varied between 1% (BA) and 2% (FA). Although in Europe the precipitation product can be applied as a fertilizer without further treatment, this is not recommended until the amount of toxic trace metals has been reduced. However, it can serve as an alternative to low grade phosphate rock.


Modin O.,Chalmers University of Technology | Wang X.,Chalmers University of Technology | Wu X.,Chalmers University of Technology | Rauch S.,Chalmers University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2012

In a microbial bioelectrochemical system (BES) living microorganisms catalyze the anodic oxidation of organic matter at a low anode potential. We used a BES with a biological anode to power the cathodic recovery of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn from a simulated municipal solid waste incineration ash leachate. By varying the control of the BES, the four metals could sequentially be recovered from a mixed solution by reduction on a titanium cathode. First, the cell voltage was controlled at zero, which allowed recovery of Cu from the solution without an electrical energy input. Second, the cathode potential was controlled at -0.51. V to recover Pb, which required an applied voltage of about 0.34. V. Third, the cathode potential was controlled at -0.66. V to recover Cd, which required an applied voltage of 0.51. V. Finally, Zn was the only metal remaining in solution and was recovered by controlling the anode at +0.2. V to maximize the generated current. The study is the first to demonstrate that a BES can be used for cathodic recovery of metals from a mixed solution, which potentially could be used not only for ash leachates but also for e.g. metallurgical wastewaters and landfill leachates. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Renova AB
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Waste management & research : the journal of the International Solid Wastes and Public Cleansing Association, ISWA | Year: 2012

Large volumes of ash from combustion of municipal solid waste are produced and most of it is landfilled. As this type of ash contains significant amounts of metal compounds the landfilling strategy is not optimal when considered from a resource conservation perspective. A better situation would be created if metals were recovered from the ash. In the present study leaching and solvent extraction was applied for release and separation of copper from municipal solid waste combustion fly ashes. The results showed promising results with Cu yields of 50-95%. The yield was heavily dependent on the efficiency of the initial leaching of Cu from the ash.

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