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Huang J.,Nanjing Medical University | Shuang J.,Nanjing Medical University | Xiong G.,Nanjing Medical University | Wang X.,Nanjing Medical University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Translational Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Stents are recommended in patients with dysphagia caused by esophageal stricture, but an ideal stent does not currently exist. Thus, studies on new esophageal stents are necessary, and suitable animal models are desperately needed for these studies. The aim of this study was to establish a model of malignant esophageal stricture in rabbit for studies on stent innovation.Methods: A total of 38 New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. Using the endoscopic submucosal injection technique, VX2 fragments were inoculated into the submucosal layer of the rabbit thoracic esophagus, and an endoscopic follow-up was subsequently performed to observe the tumor development and progression. The self-expandable metal stents were randomly deployed in rabbits with severe esophageal stricture to investigate the safety and feasibility of the animal models for stenting.Results: An endoscopic implantation procedure for VX2 tumors was completed in 34/38 rabbits, and tumor development was confirmed in 30/34 animals. The success rate of the endoscopic implantation and tumor development were 89.4% (95% CI, 79.6% to 99.2%) and 88.2% (95% CI, 76.9% to 99.5%) respectively. During the endoscopic follow-up period, severe esophageal stricture occurred in 22/30 rabbits with a rate of 73.3% (95% CI, 57.5% to 89.1%), and 12/22 models received stent placement. During and after stent implantation, no severe stent-related complication or mortality occurred in the animal models. The rabbits that received stent placement survived longer than those without stent implantation (the mean survival time: 53.9 days versus 40.3 days, P = 0.016).Conclusion: The endoscopic method is a safe and effective method for establishing a malignant esophagostenosis model in rabbits. This model can simulate the human body environment for stent deployment and is an excellent tool for the study of stent innovation for the treatment of esophageal cancer. © 2014 Huang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Huang J.,Nanjing Medical University | Zhang Y.,Nanjing Medical University | Zhong H.,Nanjing Medical University | Fan Z.,Nanjing Medical University | And 5 more authors.
PloS one | Year: 2014

This study was undertaken to establish a rabbit esophageal tumor model for mimicking human esophageal squamous carcinoma (ESC) by endoscopic and surgical implantation of VX2 tumors. Fragments of a VX2 tumour were endoscopically implanted in the submucosal layer of the thoracic esophagus of 32 New Zealand white rabbits, while 34 animals received surgical implantation into the muscular layer. Then, the animals were studied endoscopically and pathologically. The safety and efficiency of the two methods and the pathological features of the animal models were analyzed. Both the endoscopic and the surgical method had a relatively high success rate of tumor implantation [93.7% (30/32) vs. 97.1% (33/34)] and tumor growth [86.7% (26/30) vs. 81.8% (27/33)], and the variation in the results was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Compared with those produced by the surgical method, the models produced by the endoscopic method had a higher rate of severe esophageal stricture [61.5% (16/26) vs. 29.6% (8/27)] and of intra-luminal tumor growth [73.1% (19/26) vs. 37.0% (10/27)], and had a lower rate of tumor invasion of adjacent organs [53.8% (14/26) vs. 81.5% (22/27)]; all of these results were statistically significant (P<0.05). However, the difference in the survival time and the rates of tumor regional/distant metastasis [38.5% (10/26) vs. 51.8% (14/27)] between the two methods were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The endoscopic and surgical methods are both safe and effective for establishment of VX2 tumors in the rabbit esophagus. The models produced by the two methods have different pathologic features mimicking that of human ESC. We recommend the models for studies on surgical procedures and minimally invasive treatments.


Huang J.,Nanjing Medical University | Zhang Y.,Nanjing Medical University | Zhong H.,Nanjing Medical University | Fan Z.,Nanjing Medical University | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Purpose: This study was undertaken to establish a rabbit esophageal tumor model for mimicking human esophageal squamous carcinoma (ESC) by endoscopic and surgical implantation of VX2 tumors. Methods: Fragments of a VX2 tumour were endoscopically implanted in the submucosal layer of the thoracic esophagus of 32 New Zealand white rabbits, while 34 animals received surgical implantation into the muscular layer. Then, the animals were studied endoscopically and pathologically. The safety and efficiency of the two methods and the pathological features of the animal models were analyzed. Results: Both the endoscopic and the surgical method had a relatively high success rate of tumor implantation [93.7% (30/ 32) vs. 97.1% (33/34)] and tumor growth [86.7% (26/30) vs. 81.8% (27/33)], and the variation in the results was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Compared with those produced by the surgical method, the models produced by the endoscopic method had a higher rate of severe esophageal stricture [61.5% (16/26) vs. 29.6% (8/27)] and of intra-luminal tumor growth [73.1% (19/26) vs. 37.0% (10/27)], and had a lower rate of tumor invasion of adjacent organs [53.8% (14/26) vs. 81.5% (22/27)]; all of these results were statistically significant (P<0.05). However, the difference in the survival time and the rates of tumor regional/distant metastasis [38.5% (10/26) vs. 51.8% (14/27)] between the two methods were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: The endoscopic and surgical methods are both safe and effective for establishment of VX2 tumors in the rabbit esophagus. The models produced by the two methods have different pathologic features mimicking that of human ESC. We recommend the models for studies on surgical procedures and minimally invasive treatments. © 2014 Huang et al.

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