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Touafek K.,Renewable Energy Development Center Algeria | Khelifa A.,Renewable Energy Development Center Algeria | Adouane M.,Renewable Energy Development Center Algeria
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2014

Electrical performance of the hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collector may improved at increased intensity of solar radiation if the system is set to extract heat from solar cells, which is cooled at the same time. The objective of this work is to study theoretically and experimentally a new configuration of the PVT system which extracts heat from the photovoltaic module. This configuration is tube and sheet integrated into a prototype and tested at the unit of applied research in renewable energy Ghardaïa in the south of Algeria. The advantages of this hybrid collector are better heat absorption and lower production cost compared to other configurations of hybrids collectors.© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Boudries R.,Renewable Energy Development Center Algeria
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2013

The use of renewable energy and more particularly solar energy in hydrogen production is considered the most viable and the most environment protective. Electricity is required for water electrolysis to produce hydrogen. As photovoltaic modules enable the direct conversion of solar energy into electricity, photovoltaic systems are then the most indicated systems for this task. Algeria is richly endowed with renewable energy resources particularly solar energy. This situation makes Algeria an excellent place for the production of hydrogen using renewable energy. In the present work, particular attention is paid to the production of hydrogen from solar energy. The aim is to evaluate the potential of hydrogen energy production using an electrolyzer-concentrating photovoltaic system for different sites in Algeria. First the perspective of solar energy development, in light of the present energy situation in Algeria is discussed. Taking into consideration the availability of resources, the meteorological and radiation conditions, the advances in PV, tracking and electrolyzer technologies, different parameters are then used to determine the potential of hydrogen production in different sites. The results are reported and discussed. The potential at different locations in Algeria is determined. An inter-comparison between different technologies is carried out. For the system with the Fresnel reflector, the results show that the mean value over the country of the hydrogen production potential per unit cell area is about 0.14 kg H2/m2 day for the least favorable month; while this value is about 0.19 kg H2/m2 day for the most favorable month. For the system with the parabolic trough reflector, these values are about 0.10 kg H2/m2 day for the least favorable month and about 0.17 kg H2/m2 day for the most favorable month. Results show that electrolyzer-concentrating photovoltaic system is more appropriate for large scale production of hydrogen. Copyright © 2013, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bouzidi B.,Renewable Energy Development Center Algeria
Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments | Year: 2013

The pumping for drinking water in the desert and remote areas in developing countries must be regarded as a priority and useful application. The use of photovoltaic as the power source for pumping water is one of the most promising areas in photovoltaic applications. The design of the pumping system is based upon two important elements: the PV array and the storage tank. In fact, a poor design of the PV array and/or the storage tank could affect system reliability and create a deficit of daily water demand for the population.To characterize the system design, we use a new method based on the determination of Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP) during the year around a cycle of operation. It is possible that the volume of water required by the load is higher than that delivered by the pump. In these conditions, the consumption is not satisfied and there is a water deficit. We showed that the size of the storage tank has an influence on the reliability and the system sizing and must be treated with particular attention.The life cycle cost (LCC) method is used to estimate the cost of the optimal configuration. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Ouagued M.,University of Hassiba Ben Bouali Chlef | Khellaf A.,Renewable Energy Development Center Algeria | Loukarfi L.,University of Hassiba Ben Bouali Chlef
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2013

Algeria is blessed with a very important renewable, and more particularly solar, energy potential. This potential opens for Algeria reel opportunities to cope with the increasing energy demand and the growing environmental problems link to the use of fossil fuel. In order to develop and to promote concrete actions in the areas of renewable energy and energy efficiency, Algeria has introduced a national daring program for the period 2011-2030. In this program, solar energy, and more particularly solar thermal energy plays an important role. In this paper, the potential of direct solar irradiance in Algeria and the performance of solar parabolic trough collector (PTC) are estimated under the climate conditions of the country. These two factors are treated as they play an important role in the design of solar thermal plant. In order to determine the most promising solar sites in Algeria, monthly mean daily direct solar radiation have been estimated and compared for different locations corresponding to different climatic region. Different tilted and tracking collectors are considered so as to determine the most efficient system for the PTC. In order to evaluate the performance of a tracking solar parabolic trough collector, a heat transfer model is developed. The receiver, heat collector element (HCE), is divided into several segments and heat balance is applied in each segment over a section of the solar receiver. Different oils are considered to determine the thermal performances of the heat transfer fluid (HTF). Then, the HTF temperature and heat gain evolutions are compared under the topographical and climatic conditions. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Amrouche B.,Renewable Energy Development Center Algeria | Le Pivert X.,French National Solar Energy Institute
Applied Energy | Year: 2014

When a part of the power is generated by grid connected photovoltaic installations, an effective global solar irradiation (GSI) forecasting tool becomes a must to ensure the quality and the security of the electrical grid. GSI forecasts allow the quantification of generated photovoltaic (PV) power and helps electrical grid operators anticipate problems related to the nature of PV power and the planning for adequate solutions and decisions. In this study, a new methodology for local forecasting of daily global horizontal irradiance (GHI) is proposed. This methodology is a combination of spatial modelling and artificial neural networks (ANNs) techniques. An ANN based model is developed to predict the local GHI based on daily weather forecasts provided by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for four neighbouring locations. The methodology was tested for two locations; Le Bourget du Lac (45°38'44″N, 5°51'33″E), which is located in the French Alps and Cadarache (43°42'28″N, 05°46'31″E), which is located in the south of France. The model's forecasts were compared to measured data for the two locations and validation results indicate that the ANN-based method presented in this study can estimate daily GHI with satisfactory accuracy. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Kaabeche A.,Renewable Energy Development Center Algeria | Belhamel M.,Renewable Energy Development Center Algeria | Ibtiouen R.,Polytechnic School of Algiers
Energy | Year: 2011

To allow a real penetration of the huge dispersed naturally renewable resources (wind, sun, etc.) intermittent and more or less easily predictable, optimal sizing of hybrid renewable power generation systems prove to be essential. This paper recommends an optimal sizing model based on iterative technique, to optimize the capacity sizes of different components of hybrid photovoltaic/wind power generation system using a battery bank. The recommended model takes into account the submodels of the hybrid system, the Deficiency of Power Supply Probability (DPSP) and the Levelised Unit Electricity Cost (LUEC). The flow chart of the hybrid optimal sizing model is also illustrated. With this incorporated model, the sizing optimization of grid-independent hybrid PV/wind power generation system can be accomplished technically and economically according to the system reliability requirements. A case study is conducted to analyze one hybrid project, which is designed to supply residential household located in the area of the CDER (Center for Renewable Energy Development) situated in Bouzaréah, Algeria (36° 48′N, 3° 1′E, 345 m). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Kaabeche A.,Renewable Energy Development Center Algeria | Ibtiouen R.,Polytechnic School of Algiers
Solar Energy | Year: 2014

This paper focuses on development of optimal sizing model based on an iterative approach to optimize the capacity sizes of various stand-alone PV/wind/diesel/battery hybrid system components for zero load energy deficit. The suggested model takes into consideration the hybrid system submodels, the Total Energy Deficit (TED), the Total Net Present Cost (TNPC) and the Energy Cost (EC). The flow diagram of the hybrid optimal sizing model is also demonstrated. Exploiting the developed model, all configurations giving the rate of 0% of Total Energy Deficit (TED) are retained. Afterward, the optimal configuration is predicted on the basis of the minimum cost. Using solar radiation, ambient temperature and wind velocity data collected on the site of Ghardaïa (Algeria), the optimized system is compared to other energy source choices. The optimization results show that a PV/wind/diesel/battery option is more economically viable compared to PV/wind/battery system or diesel generator (DG) only. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Behar O.,University of Boumerdès | Khellaf A.,Renewable Energy Development Center Algeria | Mohammedi K.,University of Boumerdès
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

The use of central receiver system (CRS) for electricity production promises to be one of the most viable options to replace fossil fuel power plants. Indeed, research and development activities on its basic subsystems have been booming rapidly since 1980s. This paper reviews the most important studies on the major components of central receiver solar thermal power plants including the heliostat field, the solar receiver and the power conversion system. After an overview of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technology, current status and applications of the CRSs are highlighted. Next, a detailed literature survey of existing design comprising optical, thermal and thermodynamic analysis, and techniques used to assess components have been arranged. This is followed by experimental investigations in which design concepts are established. The last section contains recent subsequent improvement of such key components as heliostat, receiver and hybrid solar gas turbine that are boosting in many R&D activities merging international collaboration during the past 30 years. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Diaf S.,Renewable Energy Development Center Algeria | Notton G.,CNRS Environmental Sciences
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

In this study, the wind energy potential and economic analysis in 13 locations are investigated using wind speed data measured at 10 m height. From the collected data which are the daily, monthly and frequency profiles of the wind speed at these sites, the southern region of Algeria is found to have the relatively highest wind potential. Technical and economic evaluations of electricity generation from different commercial wind turbines are examined. The yearly energy output, capacity factor and electrical energy cost of kWh produced by the selected wind turbines are calculated. In term of energy production, the results show that Adrar is the best location for harnessing the wind power and generating electricity. The capacity factors are found to vary from 6% at Skikda to 48% at Adrar. In addition, it was found that the minimum cost per kWh of electricity generated is about 0.0179 $/kWh at Adrar for the southern region, 0.0431 $/kWh at Oran for the coastal region and 0.0518 $/kWh at Setif for the highland region. Among all the considered models, the Suzlon S82-1500 wind turbine is found to be the most attractive in terms of cost per kWh. Based on the obtained results, the wind resource appears to be suitable for power production in the southern region, which makes it a viable substitute to diesel oil for electricity generation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Hassaine L.,Renewable Energy Development Center Algeria | Olias E.,Charles III University of Madrid | Quintero J.,Charles III University of Madrid | Salas V.,Charles III University of Madrid
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

In grid-connected photovoltaic systems, a key consideration in the design and operation of inverters is how to achieve high efficiency with power output for different power configurations. The requirements for inverter connection include: maximum power point, high efficiency, control power injected into the grid, and low total harmonic distortion of the currents injected into the grid. Consequently, the performance of the inverters connected to the grid depends largely on the control strategy applied. This paper gives an overview of power inverter topologies and control structures for grid connected photovoltaic systems. In the first section, various configurations for grid connected photovoltaic systems and power inverter topologies are described. The following sections report, investigate and present control structures for single phase and three phase inverters. Some solutions to control the power injected into the grid and functional structures of each configuration are proposed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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