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Freeman K.B.,University of Mississippi Medical Center | Heal D.J.,RenaSci Ltd. | McCreary A.C.,Brains On Line | Woolverton W.L.,University of Mississippi Medical Center
Drug and Alcohol Dependence | Year: 2012

Background: Ropinirole, a D2/D3/5-HT1A agonist, is used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and restless leg syndrome, and is currently being evaluated as a treatment for cocaine dependence. However, there is little information available on ropinirole's reinforcing effects. Methods: The current study tested ropinirole in monkeys (n= 7) trained to self administer cocaine on a fixed-ratio 25 (FR 25) schedule of reinforcement to determine if it would function as a reinforcer. In addition, a behavioral economics approach was used in four monkeys to compare the reinforcing effectiveness of ropinirole to cocaine. Results: Cocaine (0.01-0.3. mg/kg/injection) functioned as a reinforcer in all monkeys under the FR 25 schedule, and ropinirole (0.01-0.1. mg/kg/injection) functioned as a reinforcer in all but one. Furthermore, cocaine was a more effective reinforcer than ropinirole as indexed by demand functions. Conclusion: The current data indicate that ropinirole has reinforcing effects in monkeys, although its effectiveness as a reinforcer is relatively weak. © 2012 . Source

Ash E.S.,University College London | Heal D.J.,RenaSci Ltd. | Clare Stanford S.,University College London
Neuropharmacology | Year: 2014

There is evidence for functional specificity of subregions along the rostrocaudal axis of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). The subregion-specific distribution of dopaminergic afferents and glutamatergic efferents along the ACC make these obvious candidates for coding such regional responses. We investigated this possibility using microdialysis in freely-moving rats to compare changes in extracellular dopamine and glutamate in the rostral ('rACC': Cg1 and Cg3 (prelimbic area)) and caudal ('cACC': Cg1 and Cg2) ACC induced by systemic or local administration of d-amphetamine. Systemic administration of d-amphetamine (3 mg/kg, i.p.) caused a transient increase in extracellular dopamine in the rACC, but an apparent increase in the cACC of the same animals was less clearly defined. Local infusion of d-amphetamine increased dopamine efflux in the rACC, only. Glutamate efflux in the rACC was increased by local infusion of dopamine (5-50 μM), which had negligible effect in the cACC, but only systemic administration of d-amphetamine increased glutamate efflux and only in the cACC. The asymmetry in the neurochemical responses within the rACC and cACC, to the same experimental challenges, could help explain why different subregions are recruited in the response to specific environmental and somatosensory stimuli and should be taken into account when studying the regulation of neurotransmission in the ACC. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Pillidge K.,University College London | Porter A.J.,University College London | Vasili T.,University College London | Heal D.J.,RenaSci Ltd. | Stanford S.C.,University College London
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior | Year: 2014

Background Mice with functional ablation of the neurokinin-1 receptor gene (NK1R-/-) display behavioural abnormalities which resemble the hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity seen in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Here, we investigated whether the established ADHD treatment, atomoxetine, alleviates these abnormalities when tested in the light/dark exploration box (LDEB) and 5-Choice Serial Reaction-Time Task (5-CSRTT).Methods Separate cohorts of mice were tested in the 5-CSRTT and LDEB after treatment with no injection, vehicle or atomoxetine (5-CSRTT: 0.3, 3 or 10 mg/kg; LDEB: 1, 3 or 10 mg/kg).Results Atomoxetine reduced the hyperactivity displayed by NK1R-/- mice in the LDEB at a dose (3 mg/kg) which did not affect the locomotor activity of wildtypes. Atomoxetine (10 mg/kg) also reduced impulsivity in NK1R-/- mice, but not wildtypes, in the 5-CSRTT. No dose of drug affected attention in either genotype. Conclusions This evidence that atomoxetine reduces hyperactive/impulsive behaviours in NK1R-/- mice consolidates the validity of using NK1R-/- mice in research of the aetiology and treatment of ADHD. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. Source

Rowley H.L.,RenaSci Ltd. | Kulkarni R.S.,RenaSci Ltd. | Gosden J.,RenaSci Ltd. | Brammer R.J.,RenaSci Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Psychopharmacology | Year: 2014

Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate is a novel prodrug approved in North America, Europe and Brazil for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It undergoes rate-limited hydrolysis by red blood cells to yield d-amphetamine. Following our previous work comparing lisdexamfetamine with d-amphetamine, the neurochemical and behavioural profiles of lisdexamfetamine, methylphenidate and modafinil were compared by dual-probe microdialysis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum of conscious rats with simultaneous locomotor activity measurement. We employed pharmacologically equivalent doses of all compounds and those that spanned the therapeutically relevant and psychostimulant range. Lisdexamfetamine (0.5, 1.5, 4.5 mg/kg d-amphetamine base, per os (po)), methylphenidate (3, 10, 30 mg/kg base, po) and modafinil (100, 300, 600 mg/kg base, po) increased efflux of dopamine and noradrenaline in PFC, and dopamine in striatum. Only lisdexamfetamine increased 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) efflux in PFC and striatum. Lisdexamfetamine had larger and more sustained effects on catecholaminergic neurotransmission than methylphenidate or modafinil. Linear correlations were observed between striatal dopamine efflux and locomotor activity for lisdexamfetamine and methylphenidate, but not modafinil. Regression slopes revealed greater increases in extracellular dopamine could be elicited without producing locomotor activation by lisdexamfetamine than methylphenidate. These results are consistent with clinical findings showing that lisdexamfetamine is an effective ADHD medication with prolonged duration of action and good separation between its therapeutic actions and stimulant side-effects. © 2014 The Author(s). Source

Heal D.J.,RenaSci Ltd. | Goddard S.,RenaSci Ltd. | Brammer R.J.,RenaSci Ltd. | Hutson P.H.,Shire Inc | Vickers S.P.,RenaSci Ltd.
Journal of Psychopharmacology | Year: 2016

Compulsive and perseverative behaviour in binge-eating, female, Wistar rats was investigated in a novel food reward/punished responding conflict model. Rats were trained to perform the conditioned avoidance response task. When proficient, the paradigm was altered to a food-associated conflict test by placing a chocolate-filled jar (empty jar for controls) in one compartment of the shuttle box. Entry into the compartment with the jar triggered the conditioning stimulus after a variable interval, and foot-shock 10 seconds later if the rat did not leave. Residence in the 'safe' compartment with no jar did not initiate trials or foot-shocks. By frequently entering the chocolate-paired compartment, binge-eating rats completed their 10 trials more quickly than non-binge controls. Binge-eating rats spent a greater percentage of the session in the chocolate-paired compartment, received foot-shocks more frequently, and tolerated foot-shocks for longer periods; all consistent with compulsive and perseverative behaviour. The d-amphetamine prodrug, lisdexamfetamine, has recently received US approval for the treatment of moderate to severe binge-eating disorder in adults. Lisdexamfetamine (0.8 mg/kg po [d-amphetamine base]) decreased chocolate consumption by binge-eating rats by 55% and markedly reduced compulsive and perseverative responding in the model. These findings complement clinical results showing lisdexamfetamine reduced compulsiveness scores in subjects with binge-eating disorder. © The Author(s) 2016. Source

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