Gange P.,Reliance, Inc.
American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics | Year: 2015
In the early days of fixed-appliance orthodontic treatment, brackets were welded to gold or stainless steel bands. Before treatment, the orthodontist had to create enough space around each tooth to accommodate the bands, and then those spaces had to be closed at the end of treatment, when the bands were removed. This was time-consuming for the orthodontist and uncomfortable for the patient. Banded appliances frequently caused gingival trauma when fitted, and decalcification could occur under the band. In the mid-1960s, Dr George Newman, an orthodontist in Orange, New Jersey, and Professor Fujio Miura, chair of the Department of Orthodontics at Tokyo Medical and Dental University in Japan, pioneered the bonding of orthodontic brackets to enamel. Many developments have occurred in the decades that followed, including many new adhesives, sophisticated base designs, new bracket materials, faster or more efficient curing methods, self-etching primers, fluoride-releasing agents, and sealants. The purpose of this article is to review the history of orthodontic bonding, especially the materials used in the bonding process. Copyright © 2015 by the American Association of Orthodontists.
Curtis M.E.,University of Oklahoma |
Sondergeld C.H.,University of Oklahoma |
Ambrose R.J.,University of Oklahoma |
Ambrose R.J.,Reliance, Inc. |
Rai C.S.,University of Oklahoma
AAPG Bulletin | Year: 2012
The microstructure of gas shale samples from nine different formations has been investigated using a combination of focused ion beam (FIB) milling and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Backscattered electron (BSE) images of FIB cross sectioned shale surfaces show a complex microstructure with variations observed among the formations. Energy dispersive spectroscopy of the shale cross sections indicates that clay, carbonate, quartz, pyrite, and kerogen are the most prevalent components. In the BSE images, areas of kerogen are observed interspersed with the inorganic grains. Pores are observed in both the kerogen and inorganic matrix with the size, shape, and number of pores varying among the shale samples. By using FIB milling and SEM imaging sequentially and repetitively, three-dimensional (3-D) data sets of SEM images have been generated for each of the shale samples. Three-dimensional volumes of the shales are reconstructed from these images. By setting thresholds on the gray scale, the kerogen and pore networks are segmented out and visualized in the reconstructed shale volumes. Estimates of kerogen and pore volume percentages of the reconstructed shale volumes have been made and range from 0 to 90.0% for the kerogen and 0.2 to 2.3% for pores. Estimates of pore-size distributions suggest that although pores with radii of approximately 3 nm dominate in number, they do not necessarily dominate in total volumetric contribution. Scanning electron microscopy images and 3-D reconstructions reinforce the facts that shales are quite different and that their microstructures are highly variable and complex. Copyright ©2012. The American Assotiabon of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.
Reliance, Inc. | Date: 2012-10-19
An instrument arm assembly is provided for presenting an examination instrument to a seated patient. The instrument arm assembly includes an arm having an attachment assembly, an instrument supporting element for supporting the examination instrument and having an attachment assembly, and a linkage having first and second attachment assemblies. The instrument supporting element attachment assembly is pivotably connected with the linkage first attachment assembly, and the arm attachment assembly is pivotably connected with the linkage second attachment assembly.
Reliance, Inc. | Date: 2012-10-19
An ophthalmic examination suite includes an instrument delivery stand, a base coupled with the instrument delivery stand and including a base plate, a carriage moveable on the base plate, and a chair supported by the carriage and configured to receive a seated patient thereon. The chair is laterally moveable with the carriage between an examination position and a stowed position. A space is created next to the chair when the chair is in the stowed position, and the space is configured to receive a wheelchair during an eye examination.
Reliance, Inc. | Date: 2015-06-30
A system for controlling a device, comprising a user-controlled overlay configured to receive one or more user-entered controls and to generate a display on a screen of the device that includes a tab, a panel and a plurality of icons disposed within the panel. A touch screen controller configured to receive user-entered screen interface data from the screen and to generate coordinate data from the user-entered screen interface data. A processor coupled to the user-controlled overlay and the touch screen controller, the processor configured to modify the user-controlled overlay to generate a user-interface window for an application associated with a selected icon in response to the coordinate data. The user-controlled overlay includes a fly-out window associated with one or more of the icons, wherein the content of the fly-out window is generated from an alert received at a wireless interface of the device.