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Breyer C.,Q - Cells SE | Breyer C.,Reiner Lemoine Institute | Gerlach A.,Q - Cells SE
Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications | Year: 2013

Grid-parity is a very important milestone for further photovoltaic (PV) diffusion. A grid-parity model is presented, which is based on levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) coupled with the experience curve approach. Relevant assumptions for the model are given, and its key driving forces are discussed in detail. Results of the analysis are shown for more than 150 countries and a total of 305 market segments all over the world, representing 98.0% of world population and 99.7% of global gross domestic product. High PV industry growth rates enable a fast reduction of LCOE. Depletion of fossil fuel resources and climate change mitigation forces societies to internalize these effects and pave the way for sustainable energy technologies. First grid-parity events occur right now. The 2010s are characterized by ongoing grid-parity events throughout the most regions in the world, reaching an addressable market of about 75-90% of total global electricity market. In consequence, new political frameworks for maximizing social benefits will be required. In parallel, PV industry tackle its next milestone, fuel-parity. In conclusion, PV is on the pathway to become a highly competitive energy technology. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Breyer C.,Reiner Lemoine Institute | Birkner C.,Q - Cells SE | Meiss J.,Reiner Lemoine Institute | Goldschmidt J.C.,Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems | Riede M.,TU Dresden
Energy Policy | Year: 2013

For alternative energy technologies like photovoltaics (PV), the analysis of Research and Development (R&D) expenses is important to observe and understand market dynamics. This is, in turn, essential for policymakers. However, the quantitative evaluation of global corporate R&D investments is a challenging task due to unavailability or high scatter of precise data. Here we present a top-down approach to estimate the current and global historic cumulated PV R&D investments based on international PV patent applications. High growth rates of PV-related patents and R&D headcount accompany growth and development of the PV market and are an excellent indicator to analyze R&D investments. With this approach, current annual corporate PV R&D investments are found to be about 6000. m€ and show a rapidly increasing trend on a global scale. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-21-2015 | Award Amount: 4.00M | Year: 2016

REEEM aims to gain a clear and comprehensive understanding of the system-wide implications of energy strategies in support of transitions to a competitive low-carbon EU society. Comprehensive technology impact assessments will target the full integration from demand to supply and from the individual to the entire system. It will further address its trade-offs across society, environment and economy along the whole transition pathway. The strong integration of stakeholder involvement will be a key aspect of the proposal. The assessments performed within REEEM will focus on integrated pathways, which will be clustered and categorised around two focal points: the four integrated challenges of the Integrated Roadmap of the Strategic Energy Technology (SET)-Plan and the five dimensions of the Energy Union. Case studies will further serve to investigate details and highlight issues that cannot be resolved at a European level. A range of outputs will target the specific needs of various stakeholder groups and serve to broaden the knowledge base. These include, among others, Policy Briefs, Integrated Impact Reports, Case Study reports and Focus Reports on economy, society and environment. A focus on technology research, development and innovation will be included through the development of Technology Roadmaps with assessments of the Innovation Readiness Level of technologies. Further, a set of enabling tools will help to disseminate and actively engage stakeholders, including a Stakeholder Interaction Portal, a Pathways Diagnostic Tool and an Energy System Learning Simulation. Access to all work developed and transparency in the process will be guiding principles within this project exhibited by, for example, providing open access to a Pathways Database.


Moehrke F.,Reiner Lemoine Institute | Myrzik J.,TU Dortmund
Proceedings of the Universities Power Engineering Conference | Year: 2014

This paper describes different approaches for controlling electrical components in a microgrid. Due to multiple targets for controlling those components, a variety of different approaches exists. A brief description of main approaches is given and discussed. © 2014 IEEE.


Schulte H.,HTW Berlin University of Applied Sciences | Gauterin E.,Reiner Lemoine Institute
IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2013

In modern wind turbines the output power for wind speeds above the nominal wind speed is limited by the adjustment of the rotor blade angles. The adjustment is performed with the pitch system. For cost reasons, in small wind turbines simple mechanical pitch systems are used actuated by centrifugal force and thus depending on the rotor speed and the blade mass. With the help of the converter the generator torque, and as a consequence also the rotor speed, is controlled, so that the constant regulation on nominal power output above the nominal wind speed is enabled. The main difficulty using low cost centrifugal force regulators in pitch systems are determined by a variable structure mathematical description, the manufacturing tolerances, and age-related changes of dynamic properties. The nonlinear dynamics of such systems has not yet adequately been studied. In particular, no stability was verified considering the foregoing model uncertainties. © 2013 IEEE.


Breyer C.,Lappeenranta University of Technology | Koskinen O.,Lappeenranta University of Technology | Blechinger P.,Reiner Lemoine Institute | Blechinger P.,TU Berlin
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2015

In a world constrained by climate change, it is of utmost relevance that energy technologies offer a low level of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at a comparatively low cost level. A literature overview is presented, which shows that the common view of PV systems contradicts its position as an economically viable key solution in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, most of the found research is outdated and instead of being a region-oriented specific analysis, most of the research has focused on general cost level calculations. A simple methodology is introduced for estimating the climate change mitigation relevance of PV systems by calculating the avoided GHG emissions for specific representative PV applications in respective regions. The potential of GHG mitigation by PV systems is combined with the related economics based on discounted cash flow calculus. PV applications ranging from small PV systems in rural off-grid regions up to large scale PV power plants and commercial PV rooftop systems show financial benefits for avoided GHG emissions. Even in Germany, the costs of avoiding GHG emissions using residential rooftop systems are 17–70 €/tCO2eq depending on the applied assumptions. These costs are distinctly lower than the 80 €/tCO2eq threshold for the cost of climate change impacts. PV power plants in Germany show financial benefits of 19–93 €/tCO2eq for avoiding GHG emissions. Summing up, PV systems are a highly attractive climate change mitigation option. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd


Plessmann G.,Reiner Lemoine Institute | Erdmann M.,ETOGAS GmbH | Hlusiak M.,Reiner Lemoine Institute | Breyer C.,Reiner Lemoine Institute
Energy Procedia | Year: 2014

This study demonstrates - based on a dynamical simulation of a global, decentralized 100% renewable electricity supply scenario - that a global climate-neutral electricity supply based on the volatile energy sources photovoltaics (PV), wind energy (onshore) and concentrated solar power (CSP) is feasible at decent cost. A central ingredient of this study is a sophisticated model for the hourly electric load demand in >160 countries. To guarantee matching of load demand in each hour, the volatile primary energy sources are complemented by three electricity storage options: batteries, high-temperature thermal energy storage coupled with steam turbine, and renewable power methane (generated via the Power to Gas process) which is reconverted to electricity in gas turbines. The study determines - on a global grid with 1°x1° resolution - the required power plant and storage capacities as well as the hourly dispatch for a 100% renewable electricity supply under the constraint of minimized total system cost (LCOE). Aggregating the results on a national level results in an levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) range of 80-200 EUR/MWh (on a projected cost basis for the year 2020) in this very decentralized approach. As a global average, 142 EUR/MWh are found. Due to the restricted number of technologies considered here, this represents an upper limit for the electricity cost in a fully renewable electricity supply. © 2014 The Authors.


Schubert S.,TU Dresden | Hermenau M.,TU Dresden | Meiss J.,TU Dresden | Meiss J.,Reiner Lemoine Institute | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2012

Oxide/silver/oxide multilayers as semitransparent top electrode for small molecule organic solar cells (OSCs) are presented. It is shown that two oxide layers sandwiching a central metal layer greatly improve the stability and lifetime of the organic solar cell. Thermally evaporated MoO3, WO3, or V2O5 layers are employed as an interlayer for subsequent silver deposition and significantly change the morphology of the ultrathin silver layer, improving charge extraction and electrodes series resistance. The transmittance of the electrode is increased by introducing oxide or oxide and organic multilayers as capping layer, which leads to higher photocurrent generation in the absorber layer. Application of 1 nm MoO3/11 nm Ag/10 nm MoO3/50 nm Alq3 multilayer electrodes in OSCs lead to an efficiency of 2.6% for a standard ZnPc:C60 cell, showing superior performance compared to devices with pure silver top contacts. The device lifetime is also strongly increased. MoO3 layers can saturate and stabilize the inner and outer metal surface, passivating it against most of the degradation mechanisms. With such an oxide/silver/oxide multilayer electrode, the time until the glass encapsulated OSC is degraded to 80% of its starting efficiency is enhanced from 86 h to approximately 4500 h compared to an OSC without an oxide interlayer. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Schubert S.,TU Dresden | Meiss J.,Reiner Lemoine Institute | Muller-Meskamp L.,TU Dresden | Leo K.,TU Dresden
Advanced Energy Materials | Year: 2013

We present highly transparent and conductive silver thin fi lms in a thermally evaporated dielectric/metal/dielectric (DMD) multilayer architecture as top electrode for effi cient small molecule organic solar cells. DMD electrodes are frequently used for optoelectronic devices and exhibit excellent optical and electrical properties. Here, we show that ultrathin seed layers such as calcium, aluminum, and gold of only 1 nm thickness strongly infl uence the morphology of the subsequently deposited silver layer used as electrode. The wetting of silver on the substrate is signifi cantly improved with increasing surface energy of the seed material resulting in enhanced optical and electrical properties. Typically thermally evaporated silver on a dielectric material forms rough and granular layers which are not closed and not conductive below thicknesses of 10 nm. With gold acting as seed layer, the silver electrode forms a continuous, smooth, conductive layer down to a silver thickness of 3 nm. At 7 nm silver thickness such an electrode exhibits a sheet resistance of 19 O/and a peak transmittance of 83% at 580 nm wavelength, both superior compared to silver electrodes without seed layer and even to indium tin oxide (ITO). Top-illuminated solar cells using gold/silver double layer electrodes achieve power conversion effi ciencies of 4.7%, which is equal to 4.6% observed in bottom-illuminated reference devices employing conventional ITO. The top electrodes investigated here exhibit promising properties for semitransparent solar cells or devices fabricated on opaque substrates. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co.


Lemke C.,Reiner Lemoine Institute | Grueger F.,Reiner Lemoine Institute | Arnhold O.,Reiner Lemoine Institute
Energy Procedia | Year: 2015

Power-to-Gas (PtG) is a technology that has the potential to be a system solution to the fluctuating energy production that arises due to the increasing share of renewable energies. Despite the fact that the technology is mature, it has not penetrated the market, yet. Financial resources are, among others, often blamed for. To investigate the economics behind the first step of PtG, Power-to-Hydrogen (PtH2), we derive a microeconomic partial equilibrium Market model for water ELectrolYsis, MELY, with a temporal horizon up to 2040. The model accounts for multiple electricity markets and various hydrogen usage paths. Each combination of these represents a subsector of the model. Utilising surpluses from renewable energies in order to produce hydrogen for the mobility sector appears to be the most profitable subsector, yielding positive unit profits in 2027. Subsectors consuming electricity from other markets and serving the mobility sector will follow this lead. A one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) sensitivity analysis reveals that the hydrogen price and parameters influencing the effectiveness of the factor input capital are most sensitive. © 2015 The Authors.

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