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Berlin, Germany

Breyer C.,Q - Cells SE | Breyer C.,Reiner Lemoine Institute | Gerlach A.,Q - Cells SE
Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications | Year: 2013

Grid-parity is a very important milestone for further photovoltaic (PV) diffusion. A grid-parity model is presented, which is based on levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) coupled with the experience curve approach. Relevant assumptions for the model are given, and its key driving forces are discussed in detail. Results of the analysis are shown for more than 150 countries and a total of 305 market segments all over the world, representing 98.0% of world population and 99.7% of global gross domestic product. High PV industry growth rates enable a fast reduction of LCOE. Depletion of fossil fuel resources and climate change mitigation forces societies to internalize these effects and pave the way for sustainable energy technologies. First grid-parity events occur right now. The 2010s are characterized by ongoing grid-parity events throughout the most regions in the world, reaching an addressable market of about 75-90% of total global electricity market. In consequence, new political frameworks for maximizing social benefits will be required. In parallel, PV industry tackle its next milestone, fuel-parity. In conclusion, PV is on the pathway to become a highly competitive energy technology. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Schubert S.,TU Dresden | Hermenau M.,TU Dresden | Meiss J.,TU Dresden | Meiss J.,Reiner Lemoine Institute | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2012

Oxide/silver/oxide multilayers as semitransparent top electrode for small molecule organic solar cells (OSCs) are presented. It is shown that two oxide layers sandwiching a central metal layer greatly improve the stability and lifetime of the organic solar cell. Thermally evaporated MoO3, WO3, or V2O5 layers are employed as an interlayer for subsequent silver deposition and significantly change the morphology of the ultrathin silver layer, improving charge extraction and electrodes series resistance. The transmittance of the electrode is increased by introducing oxide or oxide and organic multilayers as capping layer, which leads to higher photocurrent generation in the absorber layer. Application of 1 nm MoO3/11 nm Ag/10 nm MoO3/50 nm Alq3 multilayer electrodes in OSCs lead to an efficiency of 2.6% for a standard ZnPc:C60 cell, showing superior performance compared to devices with pure silver top contacts. The device lifetime is also strongly increased. MoO3 layers can saturate and stabilize the inner and outer metal surface, passivating it against most of the degradation mechanisms. With such an oxide/silver/oxide multilayer electrode, the time until the glass encapsulated OSC is degraded to 80% of its starting efficiency is enhanced from 86 h to approximately 4500 h compared to an OSC without an oxide interlayer. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Breyer C.,Reiner Lemoine Institute | Birkner C.,Q - Cells SE | Meiss J.,Reiner Lemoine Institute | Goldschmidt J.C.,Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems | Riede M.,TU Dresden
Energy Policy | Year: 2013

For alternative energy technologies like photovoltaics (PV), the analysis of Research and Development (R&D) expenses is important to observe and understand market dynamics. This is, in turn, essential for policymakers. However, the quantitative evaluation of global corporate R&D investments is a challenging task due to unavailability or high scatter of precise data. Here we present a top-down approach to estimate the current and global historic cumulated PV R&D investments based on international PV patent applications. High growth rates of PV-related patents and R&D headcount accompany growth and development of the PV market and are an excellent indicator to analyze R&D investments. With this approach, current annual corporate PV R&D investments are found to be about 6000. m€ and show a rapidly increasing trend on a global scale. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-21-2015 | Award Amount: 4.00M | Year: 2016

REEEM aims to gain a clear and comprehensive understanding of the system-wide implications of energy strategies in support of transitions to a competitive low-carbon EU society. Comprehensive technology impact assessments will target the full integration from demand to supply and from the individual to the entire system. It will further address its trade-offs across society, environment and economy along the whole transition pathway. The strong integration of stakeholder involvement will be a key aspect of the proposal. The assessments performed within REEEM will focus on integrated pathways, which will be clustered and categorised around two focal points: the four integrated challenges of the Integrated Roadmap of the Strategic Energy Technology (SET)-Plan and the five dimensions of the Energy Union. Case studies will further serve to investigate details and highlight issues that cannot be resolved at a European level. A range of outputs will target the specific needs of various stakeholder groups and serve to broaden the knowledge base. These include, among others, Policy Briefs, Integrated Impact Reports, Case Study reports and Focus Reports on economy, society and environment. A focus on technology research, development and innovation will be included through the development of Technology Roadmaps with assessments of the Innovation Readiness Level of technologies. Further, a set of enabling tools will help to disseminate and actively engage stakeholders, including a Stakeholder Interaction Portal, a Pathways Diagnostic Tool and an Energy System Learning Simulation. Access to all work developed and transparency in the process will be guiding principles within this project exhibited by, for example, providing open access to a Pathways Database.

Schubert S.,TU Dresden | Meiss J.,Reiner Lemoine Institute | Muller-Meskamp L.,TU Dresden | Leo K.,TU Dresden
Advanced Energy Materials | Year: 2013

We present highly transparent and conductive silver thin fi lms in a thermally evaporated dielectric/metal/dielectric (DMD) multilayer architecture as top electrode for effi cient small molecule organic solar cells. DMD electrodes are frequently used for optoelectronic devices and exhibit excellent optical and electrical properties. Here, we show that ultrathin seed layers such as calcium, aluminum, and gold of only 1 nm thickness strongly infl uence the morphology of the subsequently deposited silver layer used as electrode. The wetting of silver on the substrate is signifi cantly improved with increasing surface energy of the seed material resulting in enhanced optical and electrical properties. Typically thermally evaporated silver on a dielectric material forms rough and granular layers which are not closed and not conductive below thicknesses of 10 nm. With gold acting as seed layer, the silver electrode forms a continuous, smooth, conductive layer down to a silver thickness of 3 nm. At 7 nm silver thickness such an electrode exhibits a sheet resistance of 19 O/and a peak transmittance of 83% at 580 nm wavelength, both superior compared to silver electrodes without seed layer and even to indium tin oxide (ITO). Top-illuminated solar cells using gold/silver double layer electrodes achieve power conversion effi ciencies of 4.7%, which is equal to 4.6% observed in bottom-illuminated reference devices employing conventional ITO. The top electrodes investigated here exhibit promising properties for semitransparent solar cells or devices fabricated on opaque substrates. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. Source

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