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Tournier J.-M.,University of Reims Champagne Ardenne | Birembaut P.,University of Reims Champagne Ardenne | Birembaut P.,Reims University Hospital Center
Current Opinion in Oncology

Purpose of review: To highlight the current body of knowledge regarding the role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in lung cancer predisposition. Recent findings: Smoking is a documented risk factor for cancer, especially for lung carcinomas. Nicotine and its derived carcinogenic nitrosamines contribute to lung cancer development and progression through the binding to nAChRs, which then activate proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis and tumour invasion. Recent genome-wide association studies have associated single nucleotide polymorphisms spanning the nAChR encoding genes cluster CHRNA3/A5/B4 with both nicotine dependence and lung cancer incidence and susceptibility. The α7 nAChR has also been implicated in the regulation of inflammation and immunity and, as a repressor of airway basal cell proliferation, α7 nAChR plays a role in the remodelling of the airway epithelium. Its decreased function may lead to squamous metaplasia and possibly the emergence of preneoplastic lesions. Summary: nAChRs participate in the predisposition for preneoplastic lesions and the further emergence of lung carcinomas. More studies are needed to determine the influence of gene polymorphisms on nAChRs function and of nAChRs activation/desensitization on lung diseases, which represents a new stimulating approach in the understanding of lung tumorigenesis with potential clinical applications. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Gillery P.,Reims University Hospital Center
Medecine des Maladies Metaboliques

Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c ) is the key parameter of diabetic patient glycemic control survey. Its assay is performed by well-controlled techniques, whose advantages and limitations must be known upon result interpretation in clinical practice. HbA1c may be caught out in case of troubles of hemoglobin or red blood cell metabolism, or in the presence of some hemoglobin variants, and may be replaced by fructosamine assay. HbA1c assays are standardized against an international reference method, which allows to obtain comparable results from one method and one laboratory to another. This standardization, based on a more specific methodology, leads to modify HbA1c value expression (mmol/mol instead of percentages), according to a schedule and an implementation program to be determined in every country. HbA1c assay is likely to be extended to screening and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, as already recommended in different countries. Thus, HbA1c remains a full of future promise tool in diabetic patient care. © 2013 - Elsevier Masson SAS - Tous droits réservés. Source

Poirsier C.,Reims University Hospital Center
European Journal of Human Genetics

Although 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most recurrent human microdeletion syndrome associated with a highly variable phenotype, little is known about the condition’s true incidence and the phenotype at diagnosis. We performed a multicenter, retrospective analysis of postnatally diagnosed patients recruited by members of the Association des Cytogénéticiens de Langue Française (the French-Speaking Cytogeneticists Association). Clinical and cytogenetic data on 749 cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2013 were collected by 31 French cytogenetics laboratories. The most frequent reasons for referral of postnatally diagnosed cases were a congenital heart defect (CHD, 48.6%), facial dysmorphism (49.7%) and developmental delay (40.7%). Since 2007 (the year in which array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) was introduced for the routine screening of patients with intellectual disability), almost all cases have been diagnosed using FISH (96.1%). Only 15 cases (all with an atypical phenotype) were diagnosed with aCGH; the deletion size ranged from 745 to 2904 kb. The deletion was inherited in 15.0% of cases and was of maternal origin in 85.5% of the latter. This is the largest yet documented cohort of patients with 22q11.2DS (the most commonly diagnosed microdeletion) from the same population. French cytogenetics laboratories diagnosed at least 108 affected patients (including fetuses) per year from among a national population of ∼66 million. As observed for prenatal diagnoses, CHDs were the most frequently detected malformation in postnatal diagnoses. The most common CHD in postnatal diagnoses was an isolated septal defect.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 28 October 2015; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.219. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited Source

Gillery P.,Reims University Hospital Center | Gillery P.,University of Reims Champagne Ardenne
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine

HbA1c was discovered in the late 1960s and its use as marker of glycemic control has gradually increased over the course of the last four decades. Recognized as the gold standard of diabetic survey, this parameter was successfully implemented in clinical practice in the 1970s and 1980s and internationally standardized in the 1990s and 2000s. The use of standardized and well-controlled methods, with well-defined performance criteria, has recently opened new directions for HbA1c use in patient care, e.g., for diabetes diagnosis. Many reports devoted to HbA1c have been published in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM) journal. This review reminds the major steps of HbA1c history, with a special emphasis on the contribution of CCLM in this field. Source

Pierot L.,Reims University Hospital Center | Cognard C.,Toulouse University Hospital Center | Spelle L.,CHU Beaujon | Moret J.,CHU Beaujon
American Journal of Neuroradiology

The balloon remodeling technique was initially designed for the endovascular treatment of anatomically complex aneurysms, specifically wide-neck aneurysms. A nondetachable balloon is inflated in front of the aneurysm neck during coil deposition and removed at the end of the procedure. Some controversies regarding the safety of the technique were introduced by the recent publication of a series showing a much higher rate of complications with the remodeling technique compared with the standard coiling technique. However, recent data from the literature review and from the large ATENA and CLARITY series show that the safety of standard coiling and remodeling is quite similar. Anatomic results are also probably better after remodeling. Finally, due to equivalent safety and better anatomic results, the remodeling technique can be widely used in the management of both ruptured and unruptured aneurysms. Source

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