Belo Horizonte, Brazil
Belo Horizonte, Brazil

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Sartori R.,University of Sao Paulo | Prata A.B.,University of Sao Paulo | Figueiredo A.C.S.,University of José do Rosário Vellano | Sanches B.V.,InVitro Brazil | And 8 more authors.
Animal Reproduction | Year: 2016

The impressive increase in the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), especially in cattle, during the last few years in Brazil is well known worldwide. In 2015, there were over 13.7 million artificial inseminations (AI), of which, about 77% were carried out using fixed-time AI (FTAI). This technology has helped to substantially improve reproductive efficiency in beef and dairy cattle. In relation to embryo transfer, production of in vivo derived (IVD) embryos remained relatively stable, with average production of 30-40,000 embryos per year, whereas in vitro production (IVP) of embryos had a substantial increase, from about 12,500 IVP embryos in 2000 to more than 300,000 IVP embryos after 2010. The increasing availability and use of sex-sorted sperm was one of the factors responsible for a recent shift from the predominance of IVP embryos from beef breeds to dairy breeds in Brazil. Moreover, there was also an increase from 13% in 2014 to 29% in 2015 in the percentage of vitrified/frozen embryos. Moreover, the successful use of protocols for fixed-time ET (FTET) due to their high efficiency and ease of implementation, has facilitated the dissemination of ET programs all over Brazil. However, there is room for improvement, since there are several reports of high pregnancy loss and high peripartum loss, when IVP embryos are used. The production of healthy cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer has also increased in the last few years in Brazil, but despite substantial progress in reducing postnatal losses, no drastic increase in cloning efficiency up to parturition has occurred.


Oliveira C.S.F.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Oliveira C.S.F.,University Utrecht | Hogeveen H.,University Utrecht | Botelho A.M.,Rehagro | And 3 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2015

Information related to mastitis risk factors is useful for the design and implementation of clinical mastitis (CM) control programs. The first objective of our study was to model the risk of CM under Brazilian conditions, using cow-specific risk factors. Our second objective was to explore which risk factors were associated with the occurrence of the most common pathogens involved in Brazilian CM infections. The analyses were based on 65 months of data from 9,789 dairy cows and 12,464 CM cases. Cow-specific risk factors that could easily be measured in standard Brazilian dairy farms were used in the statistical analyses, which included logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression. The first month of lactation, high somatic cell count, rainy season and history of clinical mastitis cases were factors associated with CM for both primiparous and multiparous cows. In addition, parity and breed were also associated risk factors for multiparous cows. Of all CM cases, 54% showed positive bacteriological culturing results from which 57% were classified as environmental pathogens, with a large percentage of coliforms (35%). Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (16%), Streptococcus uberis (9%), S. treptococcus agalactiae (7%) and other Streptococci (9%) were also common pathogens. Among the pathogens analyzed, the association of cow-specific risk factors, such as Zebu breed (OR. = 5.84, 95%CI 3.77-10.77) and accumulated history of SCC (1.76, 95%CI 1.37-2.27), was different for CM caused by Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and S. agalactiae in comparison to CM caused by coliforms. Our results suggest that CM control programs in Brazil should specially consider the recent history of clinical mastitis cases and the beginning of the lactations, mainly during the rainy season as important risk factor for mastitis. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Freitas P.R.C.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Coelho S.G.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Rabelo E.,ReHagro | Lana A.M.Q.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | And 2 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2010

Forty Holstein cows, with previous reproductive problems, empty, at second or more lactations, with an average milk production of 9,200 kg in the previous lactation and a dry period over than 50 days were distruibuted in two groups to evaluate two protocols of milking induction. It was given to group 1, on days one, eight and 21 recombinant bovine somatotropin-bSTr (500 mg); from day two to eight, estradiol cypionate (0.075 mg/kg BW) and medroxi progesterone acetate (0.25 mg/kg BW); from days nine to 15, estradiol cypionate (0.037 mg/kg BW); on day 19, prostaglandin F2α (0.530 mg) and from days 19 to 21, isoflupredone acetate (0.05 mg/kg BW). Group two was given, on days one, eight and 21, bSTr (500 mg), from days 2 to 15, estradiol benzoate (0.071 mg/kg BW), from days two to eight, acetate of medroxi progesterone (0.25 mg/kg BW), day 19, prostaglandin F2α(0.530 mg) and from days 19 to 21 isoflupredone acetate, (0.05 mg/kg BW). Teats and udders of all cows were massaged for five minutes from day 17 to 21. Milking were carried out from the 22 nd day of induction. After beginning of lactation, both groups were given bsTr (500 mg) every 14 days. It was used a complete random design with 20 replicates per treatment and a split-plot scheme. Evaluation of the protocols was carried out by using analyses of variance using Fisheŕs test at 5% and production of milking per day using regression analyses. Milking was successfully induced in 85% of the animals. Animals from group 2 showed production mean 21.9 ± 12.9 kg of milk/day which was higher than group 1 mean 18.9 ± 11.5 kg of milk/day. There was no difference for milk composition in either groups. Twenty-nine cows were inseminated and 41.1% became pregnant. © 2010 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.


Leao J.M.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Lima J.A.M.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Lana A.M.Q.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Saturnino H.M.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | And 5 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to evaluate the consumption, performance, feed efficiency, glucose concentration, and the cost per kilogram of weight gain of crossbred Holstein-Gyr heifers (n = 33) subjected to one of the three waste milk step-down strategies: 6L-30d/4L-60d/2L-90d (T1), 6L-45d/4L-60d/2L-90d (T2), and 8L-30d/6L-60d/3L-90d (T3). Heifers were weaned at the age of 91 days. Water and starter were provided ad libitum. The average waste milk intake was higher in T3 than in T1 and T2 strategies until 30 days and between 60 and 90 days. The starter intake did not differ among the strategies until 45 days, but it was higher in strategy T1 than in strategy T3 between 60 and 90 days. The waste milk step-down strategy did not influence the total dry matter intake, average daily gain, body weight, and feed efficiency. Glucose concentrations in plasma varied within a range that could be considered normal and were similar among the treatments. The average cost per kilogram of weight gain was the lowest in strategy T1 (US$3.0) compared to that in the other strategies (T2, US$3.2, and T3, US$3.6). The 6L-30d/4L-60d/2L-90d waste milk step-down strategy was the most effective, since it increased the starter intake, led to normal glucose concentrations in plasma, and caused similar weight gain compared with the other strategies; however, it had a lower cost per kilogram. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


PubMed | ReHagro and Federal University of Minas Gerais
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tropical animal health and production | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to evaluate the consumption, performance, feed efficiency, glucose concentration, and the cost per kilogram of weight gain of crossbred Holstein-Gyr heifers (n=33) subjected to one of the three waste milk step-down strategies: 6L-30d/4L-60d/2L-90d (T1), 6L-45d/4L-60d/2L-90d (T2), and 8L-30d/6L-60d/3L-90d (T3). Heifers were weaned at the age of 91days. Water and starter were provided ad libitum. The average waste milk intake was higher in T3 than in T1 and T2 strategies until 30days and between 60 and 90days. The starter intake did not differ among the strategies until 45days, but it was higher in strategy T1 than in strategy T3 between 60 and 90days. The waste milk step-down strategy did not influence the total dry matter intake, average daily gain, body weight, and feed efficiency. Glucose concentrations in plasma varied within a range that could be considered normal and were similar among the treatments. The average cost per kilogram of weight gain was the lowest in strategy T1 (US$3.0) compared to that in the other strategies (T2, US$3.2, and T3, US$3.6). The 6L-30d/4L-60d/2L-90d waste milk step-down strategy was the most effective, since it increased the starter intake, led to normal glucose concentrations in plasma, and caused similar weight gain compared with the other strategies; however, it had a lower cost per kilogram.


PubMed | University Utrecht, Rehagro and Federal University of Minas Gerais
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Preventive veterinary medicine | Year: 2015

Information related to mastitis risk factors is useful for the design and implementation of clinical mastitis (CM) control programs. The first objective of our study was to model the risk of CM under Brazilian conditions, using cow-specific risk factors. Our second objective was to explore which risk factors were associated with the occurrence of the most common pathogens involved in Brazilian CM infections. The analyses were based on 65 months of data from 9,789 dairy cows and 12,464 CM cases. Cow-specific risk factors that could easily be measured in standard Brazilian dairy farms were used in the statistical analyses, which included logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression. The first month of lactation, high somatic cell count, rainy season and history of clinical mastitis cases were factors associated with CM for both primiparous and multiparous cows. In addition, parity and breed were also associated risk factors for multiparous cows. Of all CM cases, 54% showed positive bacteriological culturing results from which 57% were classified as environmental pathogens, with a large percentage of coliforms (35%). Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (16%), Streptococcus uberis (9%), Streptococcus agalactiae (7%) and other Streptococci (9%) were also common pathogens. Among the pathogens analyzed, the association of cow-specific risk factors, such as Zebu breed (OR=5.84, 95%CI 3.77-10.77) and accumulated history of SCC (1.76, 95%CI 1.37-2.27), was different for CM caused by Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and S. agalactiae in comparison to CM caused by coliforms. Our results suggest that CM control programs in Brazil should specially consider the recent history of clinical mastitis cases and the beginning of the lactations, mainly during the rainy season as important risk factor for mastitis.

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