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Hainan, China

Carota A.,Rehabilitation Center | Bogousslavsky J.,Center for Brain and Nervous System Disorders
Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience | Year: 2012

Mood disorders occurring after stroke are a major concern to public health as they are frequent, difficult to diagnose and to treat, and have high impact on the quality of life of patients and caregivers. The association of manic symptoms (rare) in the acute phase of stroke with strategic locations within the right hemisphere is clinically significant. However, the link among poststroke depression and anxiety (most prevalent), brain circuitries, clinical signs and individual psychological factors is not yet disentangled. The involvement of too many variables produces methodological difficulties and, therefore, the findings of a great number of studies are not systematically replicated. Thus, there is a need for research in this area of stroke medicine. Investigations on poststroke mood disorders might increase insight into the pathogenesis of mood disorders (which share the same clinical profile) occurring in people without brain lesions. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Vandenborre D.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Vandenborre D.,Rehabilitation Center | van Dun K.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Marien P.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Brain and Cognition | Year: 2015

Objectives: Apraxic agraphia (AA) is a peripheral writing disorder generally considered to result from a causative lesion in the parietal and/or prefrontal lobe of the language dominant hemisphere (De Smet, Engelborghs, Paquier, De Deyn, & Mariën, 2011). De Smet et al. (2011), however, confirmed that AA might be associated with lesions outside the typical language areas such as the cerebellum or the thalamus. We report a 32-year-old ambidextrous patient with a left frontal lobectomy who following bilateral thalamic damage developed AA. Method: Detailed neurolinguistic and neurocognitive test results were obtained after resection of an extensive left frontal lobe tumour by means of a set of standardised tests. Repeated investigations were performed after a bithalamic stroke. Functional imaging was performed by means of quantified SPECT. Results: Normal neurolinguistic test results were obtained after tumour resection. Neurocognitive test results, however, showed a dysexecutive syndrome and frontal behavioural deficits, including response inhibition. AA occurred after a bithalamic stroke while non-handwriting written language skills, such as typing, were normal. Quantified SPECT showed a significant bifrontal hypoperfusion. Conclusion: Neurolinguistic follow-up findings and SPECT evidence in this unique patient with bithalamic damage for the first time indicate that AA in the alphabetic script may result from diaschisis affecting the frontal writing centre. The findings suggest that the thalamus is critically implicated in the neural network subserving graphomotor processing. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Ambrosini E.,Polytechnic of Milan | Ferrante S.,Polytechnic of Milan | Pedrocchi A.,Polytechnic of Milan | Ferrigno G.,Polytechnic of Milan | Molteni F.,Rehabilitation Center
Stroke | Year: 2011

Background and Purpose- This study assessed whether cycling induced by functional electrical stimulation (FES) was more effective than passive cycling with placebo stimulation in promoting motor recovery and walking ability in postacute hemiparetic patients. Methods- In a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, 35 patients were included and randomized to receive FES-induced cycling training or placebo FES cycling. The 4-week treatment consisted of 20 sessions lasting 25 minutes each. Primary outcome measures included the leg subscale of the Motricity Index and gait speed during a 50-meter walking test. Secondary outcomes were the Trunk Control Test, the Upright Motor Control Test, the mean work produced by the paretic leg, and the unbalance in mechanical work between paretic and nonparetic legs during voluntary pedaling. Participants were evaluated before training, after training, and at 3- to 5-month follow-up visits. Results- No significant differences were found between groups at baseline. Repeated-measures ANOVA (P<0.05) revealed significant increases in Motricity Index, Trunk Control Test, Upright Motor Control Test, gait speed, and mean work of the paretic leg after training and at follow-up assessments for FES-treated patients. No outcome measures demonstrated significant improvements after training in the placebo group. Both groups showed no significant differences between assessments after training and at follow-up. A main effect favoring FES-treated patients was demonstrated by repeated-measures ANCOVA for Motricity Index (P<0.001), Trunk Control Test (P=0.001), Upright Motor Control Test (P=0.005), and pedaling unbalance (P=0.038). Conclusions- The study demonstrated that 20 sessions of FES cycling training significantly improved lower extremity motor functions and accelerated the recovery of overground locomotion in postacute hemiparetic patients. Improvements were maintained at follow-up. © 2011 American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Source

The famous Russian neurologist Vladimir Mikhailovic Bekhterev (1857-1927) was ordered to examine Josef Stalin in December 1927 during the First All-Russian Neurological Congress in Moscow. Returning to the Congress after his consultation he told some colleagues that he had 'examined a paranoiac with a dry, small hand'. The next day, Bekhterev died and only his brain was examined postmortem, the body being cremated the same day. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

News Article
Site: http://www.scientificamerican.com

Some dogs take on the day like this jolly jumper: Others’ approach is more like this: This you already know. But you might not know a two-part fact about fear: 1) Fear can have devastating effects on a dog’s quality of life, and 2) Fear does not have to be permanent. That’s why the ASPCA opened the Behavioral Rehabilitation Center at St. Hubert’s Animal Welfare Center in Madison, New Jersey as the first shelter facility dedicated to the rehabilitation of undersocialized, fearful dogs. The power of this initiative (and why I’m so excited) is that their work and findings can help not only the dogs from cruelty and neglect cases who enter the Center, but also dogs all over the world. On Saturday, April 16 at 9am Eastern/Pacific you can see their work in action in “Second Chance Dogs,” airing on Animal Planet. Maybe you call it by another name—shy, cautious, reluctant, suspicious, uneasy, worried, chickenhearted (clearly I went to the thesaurus on this one)—but however you swing it, “Fear is an emotional reaction, induced by the perception of stimuli associated with danger, which leads to protective defensive reactions” (Mills, 2010). While fear is part of an adaptive system that readies the body for action, it is not always useful, particularly if fear is directed toward normal, everyday things. Fear can impair a dog’s ability to cope, and it has even been associated with decreased lifespan. Behaviorally, fear can be subtle, or it can be in-your-face and over-the-top obvious. Pamela Reid, vice president of ASPCA Anti-Cruelty Behavior Team and Kristen Collins, senior director of ASPCA Anti-Cruelty Behavior Rehabilitation describe fear as any of the following behaviors: “trembling, panting, freezing, withdrawing, hiding, attempting to escape, and defensive aggression.” They add that fear is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon and can arise in any number of the following contexts: “fear of being handled or restrained, fear of people, fear of other dogs, fear of being alone (isolation distress or separation anxiety), fear of certain environments, activities, or objects, fear of loud noises, and fear of anything unfamiliar (neophobia).” Look again at that long list of potentially fear-inducing contexts and something should stand out—the list describes all the things a companion dog might stumble across any day of the week. Companion dogs regularly encounter things that are new: new people, new places, new sights and sounds. A dog in a city can’t avoid being bombarded with sounds coming and going, an ever changing array of people and other dogs, weird flooring to walk over (subway grates), and being left alone in an apartment. Suburban and rural dogs could face their own comparable contexts. Why any particular dog exhibits fear is a huge can of worms for another day, but once fear is here, standing up and waving a big Fear Flag, we can help. There is the potential to decrease fear and help dogs develop a new outlook. That’s why the ASPCA Behavioral Rehabilitation Center opened in 2013 to focus solely on dogs from cruelty and neglect cases showing intense fearful behavior. Could these dogs be helped to see another way? See for yourself. Meet Coconut: I still can’t get through this video without tearing up. Coconut’s transformation is filled to the brim with love and patience, but it’s equally jam-packed with science-based behavior modification procedures. What you were seeing during Coconut’s transformation were operant conditioning and desensitization and counter-conditioning procedures. These techniques build and attach new, good associations to previously scary things. To counter her fear of people and touch, Coconut learned to place her body on hands to get a treat. It was her choice, and eventually she came to realize that touch feels great! Over time, these incremental associations become monumental, and Coconut turned into a dog who enjoys human touch. Pass me the tissues. The treatment protocols at the Behavioral Rehabilitation Center focus on four categories: fear of people, fear of handling, fear of leash application/walking, and fear of novelty. The learning and training procedures within each category build slowly on one another to help dogs move away from fear and in the direction of that jolly jumper you saw at the start of this post—petting feels nice, people (both familiar and unfamiliar) are safe, novelty is not scary. Since opening their doors, the Behavioral Rehabilitation Center has collected data to see what works best. In addition to environmental enrichment and behavior modification procedures, they’re finding that fearful pups benefit greatly from being around “helper dogs,” or dogs who are more confident and social. Reid and Collins comment, “We have been struck by the dramatic differences in dogs’ behavior when we incorporate ‘helper dogs’ into behavior modification session. You can see a helper dog in action in “Second Chance Dogs,” and again, pass me the tissues; there’s nothing I love more than watching a dog come out of her shell. That's senior director Kristen Collins referring to the undersocialized and fearful dogs at the Center, but she could very well be talking about fearful dogs in general. Companion dogs living in homes are not immune to fear of people, fear of handling, fear of leash walking, and fear of novelty. The ASPCA’s work highlights the flexibility of fear. Nobody is talking about eradicating fear or bringing fear to zero, but results can be huge when dogs learn to form new associations and see the world as less scary. The Behavioral Rehabilitation team continues to document and collect data on their procedures, but given the success of the program—all 185 of its graduates have been adopted or placed with partners for adoption—the ASPCA will build a permanent facility in Weaverville, N.C., scheduled to open in 2017. The expanded program will focus on the development and expansion of behavioral rehabilitation in shelters and rescue groups across the country. Tune into “Second Chance Dogs” this Saturday on Animal Planet at 9:00 am Eastern/Pacific. The only thing we have to fear is fear itself. If you know a dog who exhibits fear at times, you are not alone. Here are a few expert tips on modifying fear in dogs:  The Cautious Canine: How to Help Dogs Conquer Their Fears  by Patricia McConnell, and  How to Help Dogs with Anxiety Issues Overcome Fear  by Kristen Collins. Also, here are ways to find professional behavioral help. This is the second installment in the The Science of Animal Shelters series. Also check out Part 1, The Science of Animal Shelters: An Inspirational Series. Dreschel, N. A. (2010). The effects of fear and anxiety on health and lifespan in pet dogs. Applied Animal Behavior Science 125, 157—162. Mills, D. S. et al. (Eds.). (2010). The Encyclopedia of Applied Animal Behavior & Welfare. Cambridge, MA: CABI Reid, P. J., & Collins, K. (2015). Training and Behavior Modification for the Shelter. In E. Weiss, H. Mohan-Gibbons, S. Zawistowski (Eds.), Animal Behavior for Shelter Veterinarians and Staff. Iowa, Wiley Blackwell.

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