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Alemu E.T.,PACE Engineers Inc. | Palmer R.N.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Polebitski A.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Meaker B.,Regulatory Affairs
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management | Year: 2010

This paper investigates the value of ensemble streamflow predictions and energy price forecasts as aid to decision makers in scheduling the quantity and timing of reservoir releases for daily, weekly, and seasonal operations while meeting regulatory constraints. A decision support system (DSS) is described as it incorporates two integrated models of system operation: a simulation model that replicates general operating rules for the hydropower system and an optimization model that refines operations based upon forecasts of state variables. The DSS provides a series of recommendations for the quantity and timing of reservoir releases to optimize the economic value of the electrical energy produced, while balancing requirements and concerns related to flood control, environmental flows, and water supply. The DSS generates a range of optimal reservoir releases using an ensemble streamflow forecast and identifies robust operational solutions. The results indicate the value of the forecasts in improving system operation. © 2011 ASCE.

Schmith G.D.,Glaxosmithkline | Singh R.,Glaxosmithkline | Gomeni R.,Pharmacometrica | Graff O.,A GSK Company | And 3 more authors.
CPT: Pharmacometrics and Systems Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Longitudinal dose-response analyses of alitretinoin (an investigational agent in the US) were conducted to supplement results from phase III studies in severe, refractory chronic hand eczema, with objectives to address several outstanding development issues (e.g., optimal dose, possible factors affecting efficacy and/or tolerability). Models were fitted to the physicians' global assessment score and triglycerides over time. Five hundred trials were simulated to evaluate the relevance of findings. Analyses clarified that the optimal dose of alitretinoin was 30 mg once daily, where response rates were ∼10% over placebo at 12 weeks and increased by 5-7% over placebo for every 4 weeks thereafter, for up to 24 weeks. Elderly subjects had higher magnitudes of efficacy and an increased probability of high triglycerides. Results from analyses sufficiently addressed the development issues, thereby adding to the weight of evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of alitretinoin in the treatment of severe, refractory chronic hand eczema. © 2015 The Authors CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

News Article | October 23, 2015
Site: www.aweablog.org

Tom Vinson is Vice President, Federal Regulatory Affairs at the American Wind Energy Association. With the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) publishing the final Clean Power Plan (CPP) in the Federal Register today, along with the accompanying draft federal plan and state model trading plans, it’s a good time to examine the ways wind energy can help make the CPP achievable for states in a cost-effective and reliable manner. “Reducing carbon pollution by deploying renewable energy will keep electricity affordable and reliable, create jobs, and support local economic development. Renewable energy technologies have become integral and reliable parts of the U.S. electricity supply. Meeting the Clean Power Plan is very doable, and the U.S.-made renewable energy industries are ready to do so affordably,” said Tom Kiernan, CEO of the American Wind Energy Association, in previously commenting about the carbon reduction rule. Real-world data and recent studies show low-cost wind energy allows states and electric generators to affordably and reliably cut the most carbon. Here are the top 10 ways states can look to wind energy as a “no regrets” solution to meet the EPA’s first-ever carbon pollution limits for existing power plants. 1) The nonpartisan Energy Information Administration (EIA) found that wind energy is consistently one of the lowest-cost options for states to reduce emissions in order to comply with the CPP. Earlier this year, the EIA reported that wind energy accounts for 57% of the economically optimal compliance mix for the CPP. In fact, wind energy played a leading role across a dozen scenarios examined by EIA. 2) As a zero emission resource, wind energy provides more “bang for the buck” for CPP compliance relative to resources with some emissions. For example, because one megawatt-hour (MWh) of gas generation emits nearly half as much CO as one MWh of coal generation, nearly twice as many MWh of coal generation must be displaced by gas to achieve the same level of emissions reductions, that zero-emission option like wind would displace. This helps wind energy provide compliance flexibility while reducing the magnitude of change that is required to the existing generation mix, allowing for more cost-effective compliance solutions. 3)Advances in technology and falling prices have allowed wind energy to become such an efficient option for complying with the CPP. Wind’s costs have dropped 66% since 2009, while recent technological developments allow for wind installation in new regions. 4) Growing wind means growing the economy. Wind power currently supports 73,000 well-paying  American jobs. It spurs growth in manufacturing, with 500 facilities located in 43 states around the country. Continuing to expand wind power so that it supplies 20% of the U.S. electricity mix by 2030 can create 380,000 well-paying jobs according to the Department of Energy. 5) Wind energy already helps maintain a stable and reliable electricity grid, currently creating enough electricity to power the equivalent of 18 million homes. At times, wind has supplied up to 40% of total demand for electricity on the main Texas power grid and 60% of demand in Colorado. 6) Even more importantly, wind helps keep the power running when conventional generation has challenges. During last year’s polar vortex, wind power reliably generated electricity while traditional fossil fuel power plants failed in the extreme cold. Wind not only helped keep the lights on, it saved Mid-Atlantic and Midwest consumers over $1 billion in just two days as the price of natural gas spiked. 7) Wind power helps keep energy costs steady for consumers over the long-term as well. A recent Department of Energy study found that electric prices are 20% less sensitive to changes in natural gas prices in scenarios with large amounts of wind energy. 8) The EIA’s analysis projected that natural gas prices would increase by over a dollar due to increased demand from the CPP. However, the EIA also found that this price spike would reverse and eventually be eliminated as deployment of renewable energy ramped up and reduced electric sector dependence on natural gas. 9) The goal of the Clean Power Plan is to reduce carbon emissions, and increasing our nation’s share of wind energy does just that. In 2014, wind energy reduced carbon pollution by 126 million metric tons, the equivalent of removing 26 million cars from the road and reducing power sector emissions by more than 5%. 10) Deploying wind energy will reduce other harmful forms of air pollution, including particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. DOE’s Wind Vision projected that producing 35% of America’s electricity from wind energy by 2050 will prevent 21,700 premature deaths. Learn more about how wind energy can states affordably and reliably comply with the CPP here.

News Article | August 13, 2016
Site: www.techtimes.com

The pacu fish, a South American relative of the carnivorous piranha characterized by its distinct human-like teeth, has been showing up unexpectedly in Michigan lakes. On Aug. 9, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources revealed that it has received reports of three pacu fishes found in two separate bodies of water in the state. The red-bellied pacus (Piaractus brachypomus) are popularly kept as pets in home aquariums because of their unusual square teeth that look remarkably similar to those of humans. Authorities said that the pacus found were likely introduced into the lakes by their former owners, who released them into the wild when they got too big for their aquariums at home, a practice that DNR's Aquatic Species and Regulatory Affairs Unit manager Nick Popoff described as "almost never humane." Popoff said that pets from confined, artificial environments lack the ability to fight off and protect themselves from predators and may not be able to find food or shelter to survive. While some of these former pets may make it in the wild, there is also the possibility that they will spread exotic diseases to the native animals or even reproduce in a manner that could eventually upset the natural ecosystem. The pacu is a non-native fish but it is not considered invasive in Michigan because it is a tropical warm-water fish considered to have small chances of surviving the severe cold of Michigan winters. Invasive species are non-native species that can cause harm to the environment, economy or human health. Pacus are vegetarians that use their human-like chompers to chew nuts, fruits and plants. This species of fish can grow up to 3 feet and weigh 55 pounds. Although the fish does not currently breed in the U.S. the DNR said that climate change may change this. Paige Filice, who is connected with Reduce Invasive Pet and PLant Escapes, or RIPPLE, offers solutions for pet owners whose fishes have grown too big. He advised donating or trading the fish to another hobbyist, an aquarium, zoo or environmental learning center. Pet owners may also check if the pet store where they purchased the fish would take it back. Another option is to discuss with pet retailers and veterinarians about humane ways to dispose of the pet. Another reason not to dispose of these fishes in the wild is the legal repercussion. "Invasive or not, planting fish of any kind in the waters of the state without a permit is illegal," said Popoff. "This includes the release of aquarium fish like pacus and goldfish, as well as farm-raised fish from private ponds." © 2016 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.

Anbarasu C.,Karpagam University | Bhat K.S.,Strides Arcolab | Giridharan J.,Regulatory Affairs | Amuthan A.A.,Regulatory Affairs | Satish K.,Regulatory Affairs
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To evaluate the protective effect of Pisonia aculeata (P. aculeata) on thioacetamide induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were administered 250 or 500 mg/kg p.o. of P. aculeata extract for 21 days and simultaneously administered thioacetamide (TAA) 50 mg/kg bw s.c. 1 h after the respective assigned treatments every 72 h. At the end of all experimental methods, all the animals were sacrificed by cervical decapitation. Blood samples were collected. Serum was separated and analyzed for various biochemical parameters. Results: TAA induced a significant rise in aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, gamma glutamate transpeptidase (GGTP), lipid peroxidase (LPO) with a reduction of total protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Treatment of rats with different doses of plant extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) significantly (P<0.001) altered serum marker enzymes and antioxidant levels to near normal against TAA treated rats. The activity of the extract at a dose of 300 mg/kg was comparable to the standard drug, silymarin (50 mg/kg, p.o.). Conclusions: It can be concluded that P. aculeata extract possesses a remarkable hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against TAA induced hepatotoxicity. More research is required to derive an optimal therapeutic dose. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.

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