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Buttapietra, Italy

Ventriglio A.,University of Foggia | Gentile A.,Regione Veneto | Bonfitto I.,University of Foggia | Stella E.,University of Foggia | And 3 more authors.
Frontiers in Psychiatry | Year: 2016

Suicide is a relevant leading cause of death among patients affected by schizophrenia. Even if suicidal ideation may be present in different stages of disease, some differences have been described between the risk of suicide in patients experiencing first episode of psychosis and those with long-term schizophrenia. It is particularly higher during the first year of illness and reaches a steady decline over the following years. Suicidal ideation and attempts may also be common among subjects with subthreshold psychotic experiences. Factors associated with the risk of suicide in the early phase of schizophrenia are previous suicidal attempts and social aspects: The lack of social support and stable relationships, social drift after the first episode, and social impairment. Also, several psychotic symptoms (suspiciousness, paranoid delusions, mental disintegration and agitation, negative symptoms, depression and hopelessness, and command hallucinations) and substance abuse are associated with higher risk of suicide. It has been described that perfectionism and good levels of insight among individuals who have recently developed psychotic symptoms are significantly associated with higher numbers of suicidal attempts. Moreover, recent evidences show that prefrontal cortex-based circuit dysfunction may be related to suicide in the early stage of schizophrenia. This narrative review summarizes available evidences on suicide in the early stage of schizophrenia and deals with issues to be further studied and discussed. © 2016 Ventriglio, Gentile, Bonfitto, Stella, Mari, Steardo and Bellomo. Source

Calzolari M.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dellEmilia Romagna | Pautasso A.,Istituto Zooprofilattico del Piemonte Liguria e Valle dAosta | Montarsi F.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie | Albieri A.,Centro Agricoltura Ambiente Gnicoli | And 31 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

West Nile virus (WNV) is a recently re-emerged health problem in Europe. In Italy, an increasing number of outbreaks of West Nile disease, with occurrences of human cases, have been reported since 2008. This is particularly true in northern Italy, where entomological surveillance systems have been implemented at a regional level. The aim of this study was to use, for the first time, all the entomological data collected in the five regions undergoing surveillance for WNV in northern Italy to characterize the viral circulation (at a spatial and temporal scale), identify potential mosquito vectors, and specify relationships between virus circulation and meteorological conditions. In 2013, 286 sites covering the entire Pianura Padana area were monitored. A total of 757,461 mosquitoes were sampled. Of these, 562,079 were tested by real-time PCR in 9,268 pools, of which 180 (1.9%) were positive for WNV. The largest part of the detected WNV sequences belonged to lineage II, demonstrating that, unlike those in the past, the 2013 outbreak was mainly sustained by this WNV lineage. This surveillance also detected the Usutu virus, a WNV-related flavivirus, in 241 (2.6%) pools. The WNV surveillance systems precisely identified the area affected by the virus and detected the viral circulation approximately two weeks before the occurrence of onset of human cases. Ninety percent of the sampled mosquitoes were Culex pipiens, and 178/180 WNV-positive pools were composed of only this species, suggesting this mosquito is the main WNV vector in northern Italy. A significantly higher abundance of the vector was recorded in the WNV circulation area, which was characterized by warmer and less rainy conditions and greater evapotranspiration compared to the rest of the Pianura Padana, suggesting that areas exposed to these conditions are more suitable for WNV circulation. This observation highlights warmer and less rainy conditions as factors able to enhance WNV circulation and cause virus spillover outside the sylvatic cycle. Copyright: © 2015 Calzolari et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Campari C.,AUSL | Fedato C.,Regione Veneto | Petrelli A.,Istituto Nazionale per la Promozione della Salute delle Popolazioni Migranti ed il Contrasto delle Malattie della Poverta | Zorzi M.,Regione Veneto | And 9 more authors.
Infectious Agents and Cancer | Year: 2015

Immigrants from low- and medium-income countries have a higher risk of cervical cancer due both to barriers in access to screening and to higher human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence. Methods: We conducted a survey on the main performance indicators from some of the HPV DNA-based pilot programmes in Italy, comparing regular immigrant women, identified as women resident in Italy who were born abroad, with women who were born in Italy. All the programmes applied the same protocol, with HPV as stand-alone test starting for women of 25 or 35 to 64 years of age. Cytology triage is performed for positive women; those ASC-US or more severe are referred directly to colposcopy; negative women are referred to repeat HPV after one year. Results: Overall, 162,829 women were invited, of whom 22,814 were born abroad. Participation was higher for Italy-born than born abroad (52.2% vs. 43.6%), particularly for women over 45 years. HPV positivity rate was higher in immigrants: 7.8% vs. 6.1%, age-adjusted Relative Risk (age-adj RR) 1.18, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.13-1.22. The proportion of women with positive cytology triage was similar in the two groups (42%). Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or more severe detection rate was higher for born abroad (age-adj RR 1.65, 95% CI 1.45-1.89). The difference was stronger when considering only CIN3 or more severe (age-adj RR 2.29, 95% CI 1.90-2.75). Both HPV positivity and CIN2 or more severe detection rate had a different age curve in born abroad compared with Italy-born: in the former, the risk was almost flat, while in the latter it declined rapidly with age. Conclusion: Compliance with HPV screening is lower for migrant women, who are affected by higher HPV positivity and CIN3 cancer detection rates. © 2015 Campari et al.; licensee BioMed Central. Source

Agnesi R.,Regione Veneto | Valentini F.,Regione Veneto | Fedeli U.,Veneto Region | Rylander R.,BioFact Environmental Health Research Center | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Public Health | Year: 2011

Background: In a district of Veneto (North-east Italy) where numerous females of childbearing age were occupationally exposed to organic solvents in nearly 400 shoe factories, a case-control study found significant associations between maternal exposures (from occupation and risky behavior) and spontaneous abortion (SAB). Thereafter, a health education campaign was undertaken to increase awareness of risk factors for pregnancy in the population. To evaluate the effects of this campaign maternal exposures and SAB risks were compared before and after the campaign. Methods: Hospital records were collected from a local hospital for SAB cases and age- residence-matched controls with normal deliveries. Information on solvent exposure, coffee and alcohol consumption, smoking and the use of medication was collected using a questionnaire. Before and after differences were tested through a modified Chi-square test and linear and logistic regressions for survey data. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95 confidence interval (CI) were estimated using logistic regression models. Results: The consumption of coffee (P = 0.003) and alcohol (P < 0.001) was lower after than before the campaign, controlling for age at pregnancy and level of education. There were no differences in reported solvent exposure or smoking (smokers were few). The previously detected increased risks of SAB in relation to solvent exposure and coffee consumption were no longer present. Conclusion: The results suggest that health education campaigns might reduce harmful maternal exposures and the risk of SAB. © 2010 The Author. Source

Pellizzari G.,University of Padua | Duso C.,University of Padua | Rainato A.,Regione Veneto | Pozzebon A.,University of Padua | Zanini G.,Regione Veneto
Bulletin of Insectology | Year: 2012

Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana) is a polyphagous mealybug native to Asia. It is a pest of ornamentals and fruit trees (apple, pear and peach) in America and eastern Europe where this species has been incidentally introduced. It was first recorded in western Europe (Italy and France) in 2004. In summer 2006, additional foci of this mealybug were discovered in northeastern Italy on ornamental plants and in peach orchards. Its phenology and distribution have been investigated in northeastern Italy. P. comstocki develops three generations per year and overwinters in the egg stage. Overwintered eggs hatch from April onward and crawlers infest leaves and apple and pear flowers. The adult females of the three generations were observed in June (1st generation), late July-August (2nd generation), and from late September to November (3rd generation). Most of adult females move from leaves to old branches and the trunk to lay eggs. In infested orchards females are often concealed in the fruit calyx (on pears and apples) or at the fruit stem cavity (on peaches) and after fruit picking are transported far away by fruit trading. Indirect damage, i.e. honeydew excretion and development of sooty mould is remarkable, leading to early defoliation and fruit quality deterioration. Monitoring carried out on mulberry trees and ornamentals over an area of 150 km2 in the Veneto Region demonstrates that these plants can act as permanent foci of this species in the territory. Source

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