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Wu Y.,Zhejiang University | Peng Y.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University | Zhang X.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University | Skitmore M.,Queensland University of Technology | Song Y.,Regional University of the North
Habitat International | Year: 2012

China has experienced an extraordinary level of economic development since the 1990s, following excessive competition between different regions. This has resulted in many resource and environmental problems. Land resources, for example, are either abused or wasted in many regions. The strategy of development priority zoning (DPZ), proposed by the Chinese National 11th Five-Year Plan, provides an opportunity to solve these problems by coordinating regional development and protection. In line with the rational utilization of land, it is proposed that the DPZ strategy should be integrated with regional land use policy.As there has been little research to date on this issue, this paper introduces a system dynamic (SD) model for assessing land use change in China led by the DPZ strategy. Land use is characterized by the prioritisation of land development, land utilization, land harness and land protection (D-U-H-P). By using the Delphi method, a corresponding suitable prioritisation of D-U-H-P for the four types of development priority zones, including optimized development zones (ODZ), key development zones (KDZ), restricted development zones (RDZ), and forbidden development zones (FDZ) are identified. Suichang County is used as a case study in which to conduct the simulation of land use change under the RDZ strategy.The findings enable a conceptualization of DPZ-led land use change and the identification of further implications for land use planning generally. The SD model also provides a potential tool for local government to combine DPZ strategy at the national level with land use planning at the local level. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Wu Y.,Zhejiang University | Zhang X.,City University of Hong Kong | Skitmore M.,Queensland University of Technology | Song Y.,Regional University of the North | Hui E.C.M.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Land Use Policy | Year: 2014

China is experiencing rapid progress in industrialization, with its own rationale toward industrial land development based on a deliberate change from an extensive to intensive form of urban land use. One result has been concerted attempts by local government to attract foreign investment by a low industrial land price strategy, which has resulted in a disproportionally large amount of industrial land within the total urban land use structure at the expense of the urban sprawl of many cities. This paper first examines "Comparable Benchmark Price as Residential land use" (CBPR) as the theoretical basis of the low industrial land price phenomenon. Empirical findings are presented from a case study based on data from Jinyun County, China. These data are analyzed to reveal the rationale of industrial land price from 2000 to 2010 concerning the CBPR model. We then explore the causes of low industrial land prices in the form of a "Centipede Game Model", involving two neighborhood regions as "major players" to make a set of moves (or strategies). When one of the players unilaterally reduces the land price to attract investment with the aim to maximize profits arising from the revenues generated from foreign investment and land premiums, a two-player price war begins in the form of a dynamic game, the effect of which is to produce a downward spiral of prices. In this context, the paradox of maximizing profits for each of the two players are not accomplished due to the inter-regional competition of attracted investment leading to a lose-lose situation for both sides' in competing for land premium revenues. A short-term solution to the problem is offered involving the establishment of inter-regional cooperative partnerships. For the longer term, however, a comprehensive reform of the local financial system, more adroit regional planning and an improved means of evaluating government performance is needed to ensure the government's role in securing pubic goods is not abandoned in favor of one solely concerned with revenue generation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Antypas K.,University of Tromsø | Wangberg S.C.,Regional University of the North | Wangberg S.C.,University of Tromsø
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders | Year: 2012

Background: Cardiac rehabilitation is very important for the recovery and the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, and one of its main strategies is to increase the level of physical activity. Internet and mobile phone based interventions have been successfully used to help people to achieve this. One of the components that are related to the efficacy of these interventions is tailoring of content to the individual. This trial is studying the effect of a longitudinally tailored Internet and mobile phone based intervention that is based on models of health behaviour, on the level of physical activity and the adherence to the intervention, as an extension of a face-to-face cardiac rehabilitation stay.Methods/Design: A parallel group, cluster randomized controlled trial. The study population is adult participants of a cardiac rehabilitation programme in Norway with home Internet access and mobile phone, who in monthly clusters are randomized to the control or the intervention condition. Participants have access to a website with information regarding cardiac rehabilitation, an online discussion forum and an online activity calendar. Those randomized to the intervention condition, receive in addition tailored content based on models of health behaviour, through the website and mobile text messages. The objective is to assess the effect of the intervention on maintenance of self-management behaviours after the rehabilitation stay. Main outcome is the level of physical activity one month, three months and one year after the end of the cardiac rehabilitation programme. The randomization of clusters is based on a true random number online service, and participants, investigators and outcome assessor are blinded to the condition of the clusters.Discussion: The study suggests a theory-based intervention that combines models of health behaviour in an innovative way, in order to tailor the delivered content. The users have been actively involved in its design, and because of the use of Open-Source software, the intervention can easily and at low-cost be reproduced and expanded by others. Challenges are the recruitment in the elderly population and the possible underrepresentation of women in the study sample. Funding by Northern Norway Regional Health Authority.Trial registration: Trial registry NCT01223170. © 2012 Antypas and Wangberg; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Antypas K.,University of Tromsø | Wangberg S.C.,Narvik University College | Wangberg S.C.,Regional University of the North
Journal of Medical Internet Research | Year: 2014

Background: An increase in physical activity for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cardiac rehabilitation has multiple therapeutic benefits, including decreased mortality. Internet- and mobile-based interventions for physical activity have shown promising results in helping users increase or maintain their level of physical activity in general and specifically in secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and cardiac rehabilitation. One component related to the efficacy of these interventions is tailoring of the content to the individual. Objective: Our trial assessed the effect of a longitudinally tailored Internet- and mobile-based intervention for physical activity as an extension of a face-to-face cardiac rehabilitation stay. We hypothesized that users of the tailored intervention would maintain their physical activity level better than users of the nontailored version. Methods: The study population included adult participants of a cardiac rehabilitation program in Norway with home Internet access and a mobile phone. The participants were randomized in monthly clusters to a tailored or nontailored (control) intervention group. All participants had access to a website with information regarding cardiac rehabilitation, an online discussion forum, and an online activity calendar. Those using the tailored intervention received tailored content based on models of health behavior via the website and mobile fully automated text messages. The main outcome was self-reported level of physical activity, which was obtained using an online international physical activity questionnaire at baseline, at discharge, and at 1 month and 3 months after discharge from the cardiac rehabilitation program. Results: Included in the study were 69 participants. One month after discharge, the tailored intervention group (n=10) had a higher median level of overall physical activity (median 2737.5, IQR 4200.2) than the control group (n=14, median 1650.0, IQR 2443.5), but the difference was not significant (Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z=0.823, P=.38, r=.17). At 3 months after discharge, the tailored intervention group (n=7) had a significantly higher median level of overall physical activity (median 5613.0, IQR 2828.0) than the control group (n=12, median 1356.0, IQR 2937.0; Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z=1.397, P=.02, r=.33). The median adherence was 45.0 (95% CI 0.0-169.8) days for the tailored group and 111.0 (95% CI 45.1-176.9) days for the control group; however, the difference was not significant (P=.39). There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in stage of change, self-efficacy, social support, perceived tailoring, anxiety, or depression. Conclusions: Because of the small sample size and the high attrition rate at the follow-up visits, we cannot make conclusions regarding the efficacy of our approach, but the results indicate that the tailored version of the intervention may have contributed to the long-term higher physical activity maintained after cardiac rehabilitation by participants receiving the tailored intervention compared with those receiving the nontailored intervention. © Holly O Witteman.

Hoye A.,Regional University of the North | Jacobsen B.K.,University of Tromsø | Hansen V.,University of Tromsø
Schizophrenia Research | Year: 2011

A study of mortality for all patients with schizophrenia admitted to the University Hospital of North Norway during 1980-2006 was performed, with a special focus on gender differences and changes in mortality during a period of transition from hospital-based to community-based care. A total of 1111 patients with schizophrenia were included, and the cohort was linked to the Causes of Death Register of Norway. Males and females had 3.5 and 2.6 times, respectively, higher mortality than the general population. The standardized mortality ratios were higher during the last nine years than the first nine years, and for women admitted after 1992, we found evidence for an increasing difference in mortality compared to the general female population as well as an increase in absolute mortality. In the subgroup of patients who had always been admitted voluntarily, women tended to have higher mortality, and a particularly high standardized mortality rate (SMR) was found in this group of female schizophrenic patients. Our results confirmed a persisting mortality gap between patients with schizophrenia and the general population over a period of 27. years, with a tendency of increasing standardized mortality ratios over time. The SMR for total mortality of women with schizophrenia is rising and becoming just as high as for men, both for unnatural and natural causes of death. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Garcia B.H.,Hospital Pharmacy of North Norway Trust | Smabrekke L.,University of Tromsoe | Trovik T.,University Hospital of Tromsoe | Giverhaug T.,Regional University of the North
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Purpose: Numerous studies have documented suboptimal adherence to guideline recommendations in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD SP). Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are continuously developed to define appropriate patient care, aiming to reduce risk of morbidity and death. The Medication Assessment Tool for CHDSP (MAT-CHD SP) was developed to assess adherence to CPGs concerning medication therapy and follow-up of patients with CHDSP. The aim of this study was to explore whether the MAT-CHDSP could be applied retrospectively to assess guideline adherence and therapy goal achievement in secondary prevention of CHD. Methods: We collected data from electronic medical records of all patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation from January to March 2008 (n = 300) and applied the MAT-CHD SP. We measured time for data collection and MAT application and tested reproducibility by calculating Cohen's kappa (κ) value for inter and intraobserver agreement. Results: A total of 247 MAT applications were analyzed, showing overall applicability of 66 % of the 4,446 MAT-CHD SP criteria and a high reproducibility of MAT-CHDSP application (κ values 0.93 and 0.95 for intra- and interobserver agreement, respectively). Mean time for data collection and MAT-CHDSP application was 11 min. Adherence to criteria concerning prescription was high (>75 %), but achievement of therapy goals for cholesterol and blood pressure was low (<50 %). Documentation of lifestyle advice achieved intermediate (50-75 %) or low adherence, as did therapy amendments in patients in whom therapy goals were unachieved at hospital admission. Conclusions: The MAT-CHDSP offers a means to identify both adherence and nonadherence to CPGs concerning CHDSP is applicable in retrospective assessment of CHDSP, and identifies potentials for improved patient care. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Wangberg S.C.,Narvik University College | Wangberg S.C.,Regional University of the North
Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare | Year: 2015

Objective: This study assessed the current screening for and brief intervention (BI) on alcohol use in pregnancy among midwives in Norway, as well as perceived barriers for such practice. Design, setting and participants: An Internet and telephone survey was conducted among all 200 registered municipal midwives in the Norwegian health regions North, West and South in the period December 2013-May 2014. Of these, 103 midwives were reached and responded (52%). Measurement and findings: Most of the midwives (97%) asked the pregnant women about their alcohol use at their first consultation. 42% of the midwives reported using a screening instrument. When asked which one, AUDIT or TWEAK was mentioned by 16%. The need for more training in screening tools was reported by 66%. Sixty-four percent of midwives working in municipalities that had received special training compared with 50% among the rest said that they intervened themselves if alcohol use was detected (χ2 = 0.32, P = .645). Motivational Interviewing was well known and frequently used. Low perceived BI competence and finding it difficult to discuss alcohol use with parents with a different ethnicity both reduced chances of carrying out a BI. Time constraints and lack of organizational support were other frequently mentioned barriers. Key conclusions and implications for practice: It seems that the Norwegian midwives find screening and brief interventions for alcohol use to be important and part of their job, but still could use more training, stronger guidelines and more time for following up parents. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Berke P.,Regional University of the North | Berke P.,University of North Carolina | Spurlock D.,Regional University of the North | Spurlock D.,University of North Carolina | And 2 more authors.
Land Use Policy | Year: 2013

To better manage common-pool resources, planners and conservation specialists continue to call for comprehensive and spatial planning functions of local governments to focus on entire ecological units rather than areas defined by jurisdictional boundaries. Local comprehensive plans were quantitatively analyzed and case studies were conducted within an urbanizing lake watershed to determine how well plans support watershed protection. On average, plans are not supportive of lake water resource protection. Plan quality scores revealed a free rider problem, as scores were unexpectedly higher for non-users compared to users of Jordan Lake as a drinking water supply; in other words, local jurisdictions that benefit more from the water supply contributed less in terms of comprehensive planning to protect that supply. Core determinates of watershed protection in comprehensive plans were networks for information exchange, a civic culture supportive of collaborative governance, and a centralized role for planning. To more effectively address regional scale common-pool resources problems, we recommend that (1) state and federal governments require or incentivize coordinated planning among local governments, (2) plan quality principles be applied during creation of comprehensive plans, and (3) plan effectiveness be tracked through time. Integral with these recommendations, future research should identify and test methods and metrics to evaluate plan effectiveness and outcomes. © 2012.

Cattle ranching is the main activity and the principal user of natural resources in Alamos, Mexico, extending in 93% of this municipality. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of livestock production on natural resources, in the municipio of Alamos, Sonora and in the "Sierra de Álamos-Río Cuchujaqui" nature reserve, which was established in 1996. Overgrazing, deforestation, botanical composition of the rangeland, soil cover and soil erosion risk were the main indicators evaluated. From 1995 to 2005 livestock herd size increased by 13%. By the year 2005, overgrazing was over 200% in all the sites evaluated, (reaching values as high as 550%), taking as a reference COTECOCA (the Mexican agency for the determination of rangeland grazing load) recommendations for animal rangeland load. Deforested area within the nature reserve remained relatively unchanged in 5,150 ha between 1996 and 2006. In the 155 sites sampled for vegetation and soil cover, on the other hand, we found a low percentage of cattle-preferred species, whereas species with low nutritional quality and less preferred by the cattle, represented 65 to 90% of the identified plants.

Egorov E.G.,Regional University of the North
Gornyi Zhurnal | Year: 2015

Modernization and innovative development of mineral mining and processing industry in the Northeastern Russia has regional-specific features. The operating diamond, gold, lead, coal and natural gas mines regularly upgrade production on a basis of introduction of state-of-the-art mining and processing equipment, including import. The problems of underground mining of diamonds and gold ore are partly being resolved by application of innovative technologies. Further innovative development of the diamond production industry in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) involves introduction of highly efficient and safe technologies for open, underground and combination mining of kimberlite pipes, finding of soft technologies for kimberlite weakening, elaboration of processing technologies for highly mineralized brines and concentration waste toward recovery of valuable elements and chemical compounds. The gold and lead extraction industry branches require high-performance and ecology-friendly technologies for mining and processing of natural ore bodies and mining waste, and for pushing the limits of application range for new heap leaching methods. New branches of mineral mining and processing and fuel-and-energy industries, including production of oil, gas, iron ore, complex ore, rare earth metals and other minerals, will spring up and turn out competitive products predominantly based upon innovative technologies. Currently, there are many prepared innovation-investment projects in the Northeastern Russia region. It is suggested to implement the projects by means of formation of territorial mining clusters. The article is prepared in the framework of R&D "Scientific-Technical and Organization-Economical Foundations for Advanced Innovative Development of Regional Economy in the Northeastern Russia" under the governmental assignment no. 1201460076.

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