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Souguir S.,Regional Research Center in Horticulture and Organic Agriculture | Chaieb I.,Regional Research Center in Horticulture and Organic Agriculture | Cheikh Z.B.,Regional Research Center in Horticulture and Organic Agriculture | Laarif A.,Regional Research Center in Horticulture and Organic Agriculture
Journal of Plant Protection Research | Year: 2013

Medicinal plant species were tested for their fumigant activity against Spodoptera littoralis third instar larvae. Responses varied according to plant species and parts used. For the present investigation, volatile oils were obtained from: Foeniculum vulgare (flowers and seeds), Coriandrum sativum (seeds), Daucus carota (flowers), Pelargonium graveolens (leaves and flowers), Origanum majorana (leaves and flowers), and Salvia officinalis (leaves). Fumigant activity was observed after 24 hours of exposure. All essential oils were proved to be toxic to the third instar larvae. However, the highest mortality was observed in the essential oil of S. officinalis leaves, C. sativum seeds, F. vulgare seeds, D. carota flowers, and O. majorana leaves with LC50 = 23.050 μl/l air, 68.925 μl/l air, 95.075 μl/l air, 99.300 μl/l air, and 100.925 μl/l air, respectively. Other oils showed an LC50 between 101 and 183 μl/l air.


Hattab S.,Regional Research Center in Horticulture and Organic Agriculture | Hattab S.,Laboratory of Biochemistry and Environmental Toxicology | Boughattas I.,Regional Research Center in Horticulture and Organic Agriculture | Boussetta H.,Regional Research Center in Horticulture and Organic Agriculture | And 4 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2015

This study investigated the stress response of earthworms (Eisenia andrei) to exposure to a commonly used herbicide, 2,4 dichloro-phenoxy-acetic acid (2,4-D). We evaluated both stress biomarkers and the transcriptional expression levels and activity of three enzymes involved in oxidative stress responses. Earthworms were exposed to three sublethal concentration of 2,4-D (3.5, 7, and 14mgkg-1) for 7 and 14 days. Exposure to 7 and 14mgkg-1 2,4-D significantly reduced both worm body weight and lysosomal membrane stability (LMS); the latter is a sensitive stress biomarker in coelomocytes. Exposure to 2,4-D caused a pronounced increase in the accumulation of malonedialdehyde (MDA), a marker of oxidative stress, and significantly increased the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD),and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Compared to expression in controls, the expression levels of the sod, cat, and gst genes increased in worms exposed to all three 2,4-D doses for 7 days. However, after 14 days of exposure, only the expression of the gst gene remained higher than controls. These data provide new insights into the cytotoxicity of 2,4-D in the earthworm E. andrei and should be carefully considered in view of the biological effects of herbicides in soils organisms. © 2015 Elsevier Inc..

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