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Boughattas I.,Laboratory of Biochemistry and Environmental Toxicology | Hattab S.,Regional Center for Research in Horticulture and Organic Agriculture | Boussetta H.,Laboratory of Biochemistry and Environmental Toxicology | Sappin-Didier V.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2016

Eisenia andrei earthworms were exposed for 7 and 14 days to six samples of soil taken from around an abandoned lead (Pb) mine and characterized by different levels of metal contamination (S6-S1, this latter being the most contaminated soil). The organisms were analyzed for metal bioaccumulation and for biological parameters as biomarkers of stress (lysosomal membrane stability; lipofuscin lysosomal content; lysosomal/cytoplasmic volume ratio) and genotoxicity (Micronucleus frequency). Chemical analysis showed the loads of Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu in the worms following exposure. Among the stress biomarkers, lysosomal membrane stability was significantly affected in the coelomocytes of the earthworms exposed already 7 days to different contaminated soils. Organisms exposed for 14 days to S1 showed in the cells of the chloragogenous tissue, a particularly relevant increase in lipofuscin, a biomarker of oxidative stress, and an increase in the lysosome/cytoplasm volume ratio, indicating stressful condition at the tissue level. Moreover, in the same conditions, a decrease in total body weight was observed. At the longer exposure time, the coelomocytes of worms exposed to S1, S2, and S3 (soils with higher metal concentrations) showed a significant increase in micronuclei (MNi) frequency. Expressions of the P21 and topoisomerase genes, which are involved in DNA repair, showed significant up-regulation in the cells of worms exposed to S1, S2, S3, S4 and to a less extend S6. This may indicate that the worms were only able to successfully reduce the level of DNA damage in S4 and S5 if considering MN frequency data. The biomarker data was integrated by the Earthworm Expert System, allowing an objective interpretation of the complex biological data and clearly defining the areas in which the presence of chemicals is toxic for the edaphic organisms. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


PubMed | Laboratory of Biochemistry and Environmental Toxicology, French National Institute for Agricultural Research, Regional Center for Research in Horticulture and Organic Agriculture and University of Piemonte Orientale
Type: | Journal: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) | Year: 2016

Eisenia andrei earthworms were exposed for 7 and 14 days to six samples of soil taken from around an abandoned lead (Pb) mine and characterized by different levels of metal contamination (S6-S1, this latter being the most contaminated soil). The organisms were analyzed for metal bioaccumulation and for biological parameters as biomarkers of stress (lysosomal membrane stability; lipofuscin lysosomal content; lysosomal/cytoplasmic volume ratio) and genotoxicity (Micronucleus frequency). Chemical analysis showed the loads of Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu in the worms following exposure. Among the stress biomarkers, lysosomal membrane stability was significantly affected in the coelomocytes of the earthworms exposed already 7 days to different contaminated soils. Organisms exposed for 14 days to S1 showed in the cells of the chloragogenous tissue, a particularly relevant increase in lipofuscin, a biomarker of oxidative stress, and an increase in the lysosome/cytoplasm volume ratio, indicating stressful condition at the tissue level. Moreover, in the same conditions, a decrease in total body weight was observed. At the longer exposure time, the coelomocytes of worms exposed to S1, S2, and S3 (soils with higher metal concentrations) showed a significant increase in micronuclei (MNi) frequency. Expressions of the P21 and topoisomerase genes, which are involved in DNA repair, showed significant up-regulation in the cells of worms exposed to S1, S2, S3, S4 and to a less extend S6. This may indicate that the worms were only able to successfully reduce the level of DNA damage in S4 and S5 if considering MN frequency data. The biomarker data was integrated by the Earthworm Expert System, allowing an objective interpretation of the complex biological data and clearly defining the areas in which the presence of chemicals is toxic for the edaphic organisms.


Hattab S.,Laboratory of Biochemistry and Environmental Toxicology | Hattab S.,Regional Center for Research in Horticulture and Organic Agriculture | Boussetta H.,Laboratory of Biochemistry and Environmental Toxicology | Banni M.,Laboratory of Biochemistry and Environmental Toxicology
Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition | Year: 2014

Plant nutrients might affect the activity and bioavailability of heavy metals in the soil-plant environment thus their accumulation in the plant. Little is known about the effect of nitrogen fertilization on cadmium (Cd) uptake by alfalfa "Medicago sativa". This work aims to characterize the oxidative status, the physiological stress parameters and the Cd uptake in alfalfa « Medicago sativa » exposed to Cd and supplied with nitrogen fertilizers. The experiment was carried out in a green house with alfalfa grown in Cd-polluted soil (3.6 ppm) and amended with two different fertilizers: without NO3 - (PK) or with NO3 - (NPK) in a sand:peat (v:v) mixture. The following parameters were monitored: Chlorophyll content, Photosynthesis rate, Catalase (CAT) activity, Thiobarbutiric Acid Reactive Species (TBARS) content and Cd bioaccumulation. It was found that NPK fertilization increased mean Cd uptake as well as plant biomass in Cd-exposed plants. Nitrogen supply was also effective in reduction Cd-induces phytotoxicity (Photosynthetic pigments and rate) and oxidative stress alterations. Our results suggest that nitrogen supply may improve the uptake rate of Cd by alfalfa and provide new insights on the importance of nitrogen fertilization towards future phytoremediation applications using alfalfa.


Wafa T.,University of Monastir | Nadia K.,University of Monastir | Amel N.,University of Monastir | Ikbal C.,Regional Center for Research in Horticulture and Organic Agriculture | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part B Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes | Year: 2013

In this study, a cohort of farmers from the Mateur region in the North of Tunisia, were interviewed and examined for the biochemical effects of pesticides. We studied their haematological profile, lipid parameters, serum markers of nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. We also evaluated the activities of Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and thiolactonase-paroxonase (PON). Moreover, lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were determined. The duration of pesticide use and the farmers' age were considered in the analysis. Our results revealed significant differences in some haematological parameters, in liver and kidney functions, in the lipidic status of the pesticide-exposed group. We also reported an increase in the index of incidence of cardiovascular risk in farmer populations. A significant decrease in AChE, BChE and PON levels was found among farmers. Lipid peroxidation, however, increased. The activities of SOD and CAT were remarkably elevated in farmer populations. There was a significant relation between changes in biological markers, the duration of pesticide use and the farmers' age. This study indicates that a long-term exposure to pesticides may play an important role in the development of vascular diseases via metabolic disorders of lipoproteins, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress, inhibition of BChE and decrease in thiolactonase-PON levels. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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