Regional Remote Sensing Center

Jodhpur, India

Regional Remote Sensing Center

Jodhpur, India
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Surendran U.,Center for Water Resources Development and Management | Kumar V.,Tamil University | Ramasubramoniam S.,Regional Remote Sensing Center | Raja P.,ICAR Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation
Water Resources Management | Year: 2017

Drought is considered as a major natural hazard/ disaster, affecting several sectors of the economy and the environment worldwide. Drought, a complex phenomenon can be characterised by its severity, duration, and areal extent. Drought indices for the characterization and the monitoring of drought simplify the complex climatic functions and can quantify climatic anomalies for their severity, duration, and frequency. With this as background drought indices were worked out for Madurai district of Tamil Nadu using DrinC (Drought Indices Calculator) software. DrinC calculates the drought indices viz., deciles, Standard Precipitation Index (SPI), Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI), Streamflow Drought Index (SDI) by providing a simple, though flexible interface by considering all the factors. The drought of 3, 6 and 9 months as time series can also be estimated. The results showed that drought index of Madurai region by decile method revealed that among the 100 years, 20 years were affected by drought and it is cyclic in nature and occurring almost every 3 to 7 years once repeatedly, except for some continuous period, i.e., 1923, 1924 and 1985, 1986, etc. During the last five decades, the incidence is higher with 13 events, whereas in the first five decades it was only 7. The SPI and RDI index also followed the similar trend of deciles. However, under SPI and RDI, the severely dry and extremely dry category was only seven years and all other drought years of deciles were moderately dry. Our study indicated that SPI is a better indicator than deciles since here severity can be understood. SDI did not follow the trend similar to SPI or RDI. Regression analysis showed that the SPI and RDI are significantly correlated and if 1st 3 months rainfall data is available one can predict yearly RDI drought index. The results demonstrated that these approaches could be useful for developing preparedness plan to combat the consequences of drought. Findings from such studies are useful tools for devising strategic preparedness plans to combat droughts and mitigate their effects on the activities in the various sectors of the economy. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Chowdary V.M.,Regional Remote Sensing Center | Chakraborthy D.,Regional Remote Sensing Center | Jeyaram A.,Regional Remote Sensing Center | Murthy Y.V.N.K.,Indian Institute of Remote Sensing | And 2 more authors.
Water Resources Management | Year: 2013

Watershed prioritization based on the natural resources and physical processes involves locating critical areas of erosion, which produce maximum sediment yield to take up conservation activities on priority basis. The present study was taken up with a specific objective of prioritization of micro-watersheds using Multi-Criteria Decision Approach - Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) based SYI model (AHPSYI) under GIS environment for a case study area of Mayurakshi watershed in India. This method basically uses information of Potential Erosion Index (PEI) and Sediment Delivery Ratio (SDR), indicative of transport capacity. In the present study, sediment delivery factors viz., topography, vegetation cover, proximity to water courses and soil were translated into GIS layers and integrated using Boolean conditions to create a data layer of spatially distributed SDIs' across the watershed. For assessment of PEI, important watershed parameters viz., land use/land cover, soil, slope, and drainage density maps were integrated in the GIS environment using Weighted Linear Combination method (WLC) by assigning weights to themes and ranks to features of individual theme using AHP technique. A comparison between AHPSYI based sub watershed prioritization map with that of prioritization map based on the observed sediment yield data revealed that about 78 % of the area showed concurrence. Thus, it can be inferred that the watershed prioritization based on only thematic layers can be dependable to maximum extent. Subsequently, proposed approach was adopted for prioritization of the study area at micro watershed scale, where area under high and very high categories together constitutes around 33 % of the study area. Around 100 micro-watersheds out of 276 watersheds are under moderate to very high category respectively, signifying the need for watershed management. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Surendran U.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Rama Subramoniam S.,Regional Remote Sensing Center | Raja P.,Indian Central Arid Zone Research Institute | Raja P.,ICAR Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | And 2 more authors.
Environmental monitoring and assessment | Year: 2016

Mining of nutrients from soil is a major problem in developing countries causing soil degradation and threaten long-term food production. The present study attempts to apply NUTrient MONitoring (NUTMON) model for carrying out nutrient budgeting to assess the stocks and flows of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in defined geographical unit based on the inputs, viz., mineral fertilizers, manures, atmospheric deposition, and sedimentation, and outputs, viz., harvested crop produces, residues, leaching, denitrification, and erosion losses. The study area covers Coimbatore and Erode Districts, which are potential agricultural areas in western agro-ecological zone of Tamil Nadu, India. The calculated nutrient balances for both the districts at district scale, using NUTMON methodology, were negative for nitrogen (N -3.3 and -10.1 kg ha(-1)) and potassium (K -58.6 and -9.8 kg ha(-1)) and positive for phosphorus (P +14.5 and 20.5 kg ha(-1)). Soil nutrient pool has to adjust the negative balance of N and K; there will be an expected mining of nutrient from the soil reserve. A strategy was attempted for deriving the fertilizer recommendation using Decision Support System for Integrated Fertilizer Recommendation (DSSIFER) to offset the mining in selected farms. The results showed that when DSSIFER recommended fertilizers are applied to crops, the nutrient balance was positive. NUTMON-Toolbox with DSSIFER would serve the purpose on enhancing soil fertility, productivity, and sustainability. The management options to mitigate nutrient mining with an integrated system approach are also discussed.


Surendran U.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Rama Subramoniam S.,Regional Remote Sensing Center | Raja P.,Indian Central Arid Zone Research Institute | Kumar V.,Agricultural College and Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2016

Mining of nutrients from soil is a major problem in developing countries causing soil degradation and threaten long-term food production. The present study attempts to apply NUTrient MONitoring (NUTMON) model for carrying out nutrient budgeting to assess the stocks and flows of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in defined geographical unit based on the inputs, viz., mineral fertilizers, manures, atmospheric deposition, and sedimentation, and outputs, viz., harvested crop produces, residues, leaching, denitrification, and erosion losses. The study area covers Coimbatore and Erode Districts, which are potential agricultural areas in western agro-ecological zone of Tamil Nadu, India. The calculated nutrient balances for both the districts at district scale, using NUTMON methodology, were negative for nitrogen (N −3.3 and −10.1 kg ha−1) and potassium (K −58.6 and −9.8 kg ha−1) and positive for phosphorus (P +14.5 and 20.5 kg ha−1). Soil nutrient pool has to adjust the negative balance of N and K; there will be an expected mining of nutrient from the soil reserve. A strategy was attempted for deriving the fertilizer recommendation using Decision Support System for Integrated Fertilizer Recommendation (DSSIFER) to offset themining in selected farms. The results showed that when DSSIFER recommended fertilizers are applied to crops, the nutrient balance was positive. NUTMON-Toolbox with DSSIFER would serve the purpose on enhancing soil fertility, productivity, and sustainability. The management options to mitigate nutrient mining with an integrated system approach are also discussed. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.


Biswal A.,Regional Remote Sensing Center | Jeyaram A.,Regional Remote Sensing Center | Mukherjee S.,Anthropological Survey of India | Kumar U.,Anthropological Survey of India
International Journal of Ecology | Year: 2013

National parks and protected areas require periodic monitoring because of changing land cover types and variability of landscape contexts within and adjacent to their boundaries. In this study, remote sensing and GIS techniques were used to analyse the changes in the vegetation density particularly in the zones of higher anthropogenic pressure in the Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR) of Odisha (India), using Landsat imagery from 1975 to 2005. A technique for the detection of postclassification changes was followed and the change in vegetation density as expressed by normalized difference vegetation index was computed. Results indicate that high dense forest in the core zone has been conserved and the highest reforestation has also occurred in this zone of SBR. The results also reveal that anthropological interventions are more in the less dense forest areas and along the roads, whereas high dense forest areas have remained undisturbed and rejuvenated. This study provides baseline data demonstrating alteration in land cover over the past three decades and also serves as a foundation for monitoring future changes in the national parks and protected areas. © 2013 Anima Biswal et al.


Bhadra B.K.,Regional Remote Sensing Center | Kumar S.,Krishi Vigyan Kendra | Paliwal R.,Regional Remote Sensing Center | Jeyaseelan A.T.,Indian National Remote Sensing Centre
Hydrogeology Journal | Year: 2016

Over-exploitation of groundwater for agricultural crops puts stress on the sustainability of natural resources in the arid region of Rajasthan state, India. Hydrogeological study of groundwater levels of the study area during the pre-monsoon (May to June), post-monsoon (October to November) and post-irrigation (February to March) seasons of 2004–2005 to 2011–2012 shows a steady decline of groundwater levels at the rate of 1.28–1.68 m/year, mainly due to excessive groundwater draft for irrigation. Due to the low density of the groundwater observation-well network in the study area, assessment of groundwater draft, and thus groundwater resource management, becomes a difficult task. To overcome the situation, a linear groundwater draft model (LGDM) has been developed based on the empirical relationship between satellite-derived crop acreage and the observed groundwater draft for the year 2003–2004. The model has been validated for a decade, during three year-long intervals (2005–2006, 2008–2009 and 2011–2012) using groundwater draft, estimated through a discharge factor method. Further, the estimated draft was validated through observed pumping data from random sampled villages (2011–2012). The results suggest that the developed LGDM model provides a good alternative to the estimation of groundwater draft based on satellite-based crop area in the absence of groundwater observation wells in arid regions of northwest India. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Jangid J.,Symbiosis International University | Bera A.K.,Regional Remote Sensing Center | Joseph M.,Regional Remote Sensing Center | Singh V.,Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati | And 3 more authors.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2016

Renewable energy is considered to be one of the viable options in consideration of intense economic development and increasing energy consumption. With maturity of advanced technologies, economical viable and environmental friendly, wind energy has become one of the fastest growing sources of renewable energy in the world. This study focuses on the combined use of geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial multi-criteria decision analysis for selecting the most appropriate sites for wind-farm development projects. This paper utilized wind speed data over a period of almost 20 years between 1991 and 2010 from different stations to assess the wind power potential sites. The wind energy potential zones were grouped into four categories as “high suitable”, “moderate suitable”, “low suitable” and “not suitable”. The results show that the study area has 12.20% (2787.78 km2) as high suitable, 17.06% (3899.78 km2) as moderate suitable and 11.06% (2528.61 km2) as low suitable. The most potential suitable sites were located in the northwestern (along Osian, Shergargh, Dechu, and Shaitrawa, Phalodi) of Jodhpur district, India. This scientific approach will enable resource managers during planning process to make informed decisions. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Sharma R.,Regional Remote Sensing Center | Chaudhry S.,Kurukshetra University | Kudrat M.,Regional Remote Sensing Center | Tiwari A.K.,Regional Remote Sensing Center | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Ecology and Development | Year: 2012

Vegetation and landuse mapping was carried out in the Kumaun Himalayan region, covering 21,034 km2 area, with the help of multi-season AWiFS data of IRS-P6. Different vegetation and landuse categories were identified using a hybrid approach of classification including unsupervised, supervised and contextual refinement techniques. 41% of the total area was occupied by vegetation with a dominance of pine forest spread in an area of 1982.74 km 2 (23% of total forest area). SRTM DEM was used for post classification refinements. Classified map was assessed for accuracy, and an overall accuracy of 92% was obtained. Distribution of different vegetation types was also analyzed with respect to different topographic variables in the study area. Maximum area with vegetation was observed in mid elevation zone in comparison to other altitude zones. In different categories maximum distribution of forest area was under low followed by mid and higher slope categories. Southern aspect was observed with maximum forest area. © 2012 IJED.


Hebbar R.,Regional Remote Sensing Center | Ravishankar H.M.,Regional Remote Sensing Center | Trivedi S.,Regional Remote Sensing Center | Subramoniam S.R.,Regional Remote Sensing Center | And 2 more authors.
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2014

High resolution satellite images are associated with large variance and thus, per pixel classifiers often result in poor accuracy especially in delineation of horticultural crops. In this context, object oriented techniques are powerful and promising methods for classification. In the present study, a semi-automatic object oriented feature extraction model has been used for delineation of horticultural fruit and plantation crops using Erdas Objective Imagine. Multi-resolution data from Resourcesat LISS-IV and Cartosat-1 have been used as source data in the feature extraction model. Spectral and textural information along with NDVI were used as inputs for generation of Spectral Feature Probability (SFP) layers using sample training pixels. The SFP layers were then converted into raster objects using threshold and clump function resulting in pixel probability layer. A set of raster and vector operators was employed in the subsequent steps for generating thematic layer in the vector format. This semi-automatic feature extraction model was employed for classification of major fruit and plantations crops viz., mango, banana, citrus, coffee and coconut grown under different agro-climatic conditions. In general, the classification accuracy of about 75-80 per cent was achieved for these crops using object based classification alone and the same was further improved using minimal visual editing of misclassified areas. A comparison of on-screen visual interpretation with object oriented approach showed good agreement. It was observed that old and mature plantations were classified more accurately while young and recently planted ones (3years or less) showed poor classification accuracy due to mixed spectral signature, wider spacing and poor stands of plantations. The results indicated the potential use of object oriented approach for classification of high resolution data for delineation of horticultural fruit and plantation crops. The present methodology is applicable at local levels and future development is focused on up-scaling the methodology for generation of fruit and plantation crop maps at regional and national level which is important for creation of database for overall horticultural crop development.


Varghese A.O.,Regional Remote Sensing Center | Joshi A.K.,Regional Remote Sensing Center | Murthy Y.V.N.K.,Indian National Remote Sensing Centre
Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing | Year: 2010

In order to ensure that threatened species are included in the conservation of our biological diversity, it is necessary to prioritise species and thus by landscape or implement measure for prioritised area. This requires geographical data specifying the places where threatened plants grow and the qualitative descriptions of environmental variables with which they are associated. The fundamental niche can be viewed as the set of environmental conditions and resources that allow a given species to survive and reproduce in the absence of biotic interactions. To survive and avoid competition for the same resources, a species usually occupies only a part of its fundamental niche in a particular community or ecosystem - that is its realized niche. Currently available floras, which provide valuable information about the species distribution pattern, do not indicate specific locations or the qualitative descriptions of environmental variables with which they are associated. In the present study realized niches of the threatened plant species of Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary were gathered using Global Positioning System (GPS) and distribution and abundance of each species were measured by stratified random sampling techniques. The realized niches of each threatened species were gathered by GPS and inductive habitat suitability assessment modelling has been done in Geographic Information System (GIS) along with environmental, edaphic, topographic and phytosociological data for their fundamental niche. The study resulted in documenting 151 tree species belonging to 51 families with eight threatened species. The distribution of each threatened species, their realized niches and its status, ecological amplitude among forest types and their geographical positions in the landscape were documented and mapped. This will lead to the exact locality information of the concerned taxa, their population status, edaphic and climatic characters of their habitat, their niche width, potential localities to be searched, knowledge of their habitat requirements; particularly the factors limiting their distributions, the factors leading to local and biological extinction and critical habitats. © 2010 Indian Society of Remote Sensing.

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