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SINGH T.,Regional Rainfed Lowland Rice Research Station | SATAPATHY B.S.,Regional Rainfed Lowland Rice Research Station | GAUTAM P.,ICAR National Rice Research Institute | LAL B.,ICAR National Rice Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Experimental Agriculture | Year: 2017

Weed management is the major challenge to the success of boro rice (rice grown during Dec–Jan to May–Jun, also known as summer rice) in Southern Asia. Herbicide seems to be a cost effective and strategic tool from an agronomic view point to control weeds; however, herbicide application can potentially interfere with soil enzyme activity and microbial biomass carbon (MBC). A field study was conducted in 2012/13 and 2013/14 to evaluate the performance of sole and combined application of different pre-emergence herbicides in comparison to manual weeding in boro rice. Lowest weed density, biomass and highest weed control efficiency (~83%) were recorded with the pyrazosulfuron ethyl, causing higher grain yield (6.7 Mg ha−1 in 2012/13 and 4.5 Mg ha−1 in 2013/14) than treatments with chlorimuron + metsulfuron-methyl, bensulfuron methyl + pretilachlor, butachlor fb 2,4D, butachlor and cono-weeder. Among, the herbicidal treatments butachlor caused lower grain yield and higher weed density and biomass when compared to the others. Although grain yield was highest in weed-free treatments but net returns and (B:C) benefit cost ratio was highest for pyrazosulfuron ethyl due to high cost of hand weeding. After 15 days of herbicide application, lowest microbial biomass carbon was recorded with bensulfuron methyl + pretilachlor, whereas lower values of dehydrogenase and fluorescein diacetate activities were observed with the application of chlorimuron + metsulfuron-methyl at 15 days after herbicide application. Our results suggest that pyrazosulfuron ethyl is one broad-spectrum and economically effective herbicide for controlling weeds as an alternative to labour consuming hand weeding in boro rice cultivation. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2017

Sharma S.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Sharma S.K.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region | Vignesh Kumar P.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Geetanjali A.S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Virus Genes | Year: 2015

Genome sequences of three episomal Banana streak MY virus (BSMYV) isolates sampled from triploid banana hybrids (Chini Champa: AAB; Malbhog: AAB and Monthan: ABB), grown in North-East and South India are reported in this study by sequence-independent improved rolling circle amplification (RCA). RCA coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed diverse restriction profiles of five BSMYV isolates. Nucleotide substitution rates of BSMYV subpopulation and Banana streak OL virus subpopulation was 7.13 × 10−3 to 1.59 × 10−2 and 2.65 × 10−3 to 5.49 × 10−3, respectively, for the different coding regions. Analysis of the genetic diversity of banana and sugarcane badnaviruses revealed a total of 32 unique recombination events among banana and sugarcane badnaviruses (inter BSV–SCBV), in addition to the extensive recombination with in banana streak viruses and sugarcane bacilliform viruses (intra-BSV and intra-SCBV). Many unique fragments were shown to contain similar ruminant sequence fragments which indicated the possibility that the two groups of badnaviruses or their ancestors to colonise same host before making the host shift. The distribution of recombination events, hot-spots (intergenic region and C-terminal of ORF3) as well as cold-spots (distributed in ORF3) displayed the mirroring of recombination traces in both group of badnaviruses. These results support the hypothesis of relatedness of banana and sugarcane badnaviruses and the host and geographical shifts that followed the fixation of the species complex appear to be a recent event. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Rautaray S.K.,Regional Rainfed Lowland Rice Research Station
Potato Journal | Year: 2010

Three field experiments were conducted at Regional Rainfed Lowland Rice Research Station, Gerua, Kamrup, Assam, India to study the effects of mulching on potato (Solanum tuberosum) in a rainfed rice-potato cropping system. Experiment 1 was conducted during three seasons (1999-2000, 2000-2001 and 2001-2002) to examine the effect of mulching on yield and economics of winter crops grown after rice and to identify suitable rice based cropping sequences with high productivity and profitability. Rice as preceding crop was followed by common winter crops, viz., potato, tomato, pea for green pods, lentil, gram, toria and coriander. Among the subsequent crops, potato gave the highest yield of 13.9 t ha 1 followed by tomato (12.3 t ha 1) under mulching with paddy straw. The rate of increase in yield due to mulching was highest for tomato (29%) followed by potato (21 %). Results of Experiment 2 conducted during two seasons revealed that mulching with dried water hyacinth improved tuber yield of potato by 3.02 t ha 1 from 11.36 t ha 1 under no mulching. The proportion of larger sized tuber yield was higher (60%) under mulching as compared to no-mulching control (51%). Results of experiment 3 (2004-005 and 2005-2006) revealed that response of potato to mulching depends on the variety used. In 2005-06, the yield levels were very low (0.5 t ha -1 under no-mulching and 2.3 t ha -1 under mulching) due to the incidence of bacterial wilt followed by late blight. Incidences of the two diseases were less severe under mulching. Results indicate that use of tolerant variety Kufri Megha and adoption of mulching may reduce wilt and blight incidence and increase tuber yield.

Behera U.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Rautaray S.K.,Regional Rainfed Lowland Rice Research Station
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2010

A field experiment was conducted at Indore, India, from 2000 to 2002 in a Vertisol having clay loam texture. The objective was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen-fixing bacteria, phosphorus-solubilising bacteria, vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) (Glomus fasciculatum), and chemical fertilizers on yield performance and quality parameters of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var. durum Desf.). The grain (5664kg ha-1) and straw yields were higher under recommended fertilizer dose (100% NPK) than under 50% NPK (4674kg ha-1). Compared to the 50% NPK, biofertilizers+50% NPK increased grain yield marginally (2-6%) and could not reach the level of significance. However, straw yields were higher under the latter treatments. Protein and -carotene contents were higher and the hectoliter weight was lower with 100% NPK as compared to 50% NPK. A drastic reduction in yellow berry content and sedimentation value was noted with the increasing fertility level. These quality parameters did not differ under biofertilizers+50% NPK compared with the 50% NPK. Highest net returns were accrued from 100% NPK followed by biofertilizers+50% NPK. Yield, quality parameters and net returns were the lowest under the unfertilized control.

Rautaray S.K.,ICAR Indian Institute of Water Management | Verma O.P.,ICAR Indian Institute of Water Management | Satapathy B.S.,ICAR Indian Institute of Water Management | Satapathy B.S.,Regional Rainfed Lowland Rice Research Station
Indian Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2015

Attempt was made to adjust three rice crops in a cropping sequence in irrigated lowland, and also to compare productivity and efficiency of rice (Oryza sativa L.)–rice–rice cropping system with rice–rice and rice–fallow. Results of the 8 years study (2001–09) revealed that rice variety ‘Chandrama’ as winter crop, followed by the same variety as summer crop and ‘Vandana’ as autumn crop could be grown in sequence. The grain yield from the 3 rice cropping sequence was 15.3 t/ha. The productivity of the summer crop (6.8 t/ha) was the highest, followed by the winter crop (5.6 t/ha). The lowest productivity was obtained from autumn crop (2.9 t/ha). Rice–rice cropping system produced the lower grain yield of 12.4 t/ha. However, considering production efficiency (48.8 kg grain/ha/ day), sustainable yield index (0.98), net return (23,187/ha) and benefit: cost ratio (1.43), it was better than rice– rice–rice cropping system. Results on soil chemical properties after eight cropping cycles under rice–rice–rice cropping system revealed that soil pH and available N content were similar to the initial value. However, a buildup of organic carbon (12%), and available phosphorus (39.5%) and potassium (6.4%) in soil was noted. © 2015 Indian Society of Agronomy. All rights reserved.

Satapathy B.S.,Regional Rainfed Lowland Rice Research Station | Singh T.,Regional Rainfed Lowland Rice Research Station | Pun K.B.,Regional Rainfed Lowland Rice Research Station | Rautaray S.K.,Regional Rainfed Lowland Rice Research Station
Indian Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2015

A field experiment was conducted during the rainy (kharif) season of 2011 and 2012 at Gerua, Hajo, Asom to assess the performance of high-yielding varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under double-transplanting method in rainfed lowland rice ecosystem of lower Brahmaputra Valley of Asom. The experiment consists of 10 treatment combinations, viz. 2 plant stand establishment methods (normal transplanting and double transplanting) in main plots and 5 rice varieties ‘Ranjit’, ‘Swarna’, ‘Swarna Sub 1’, ‘Sabita’ and ‘Pooja’ in subplots. Double transplanting recorded significantly increase in grain yield by 9.4% over normal transplanting. The increase in grain yield was owing to increase in number of panicles/unit area, number of grains/panicle, grain filling percentage and 1,000grain weight. Among the rice varieties ‘Swarna’ recorded significantly higher grain yield of 6.16 t/ha followed by ‘Ranjit’ (5.67 t/ha) and ‘Swarna Sub 1’ (5.65 t/ha). Under double transplanting, ‘Swarna’ recorded the highest benefit cost ratio of 2.03 and least production cost of ₹5.03/kg of grain, while ‘Sabita’ recorded lowest benefit: cost ratio of 1.10 due to lowest yield (4.20 t/ha) and poor market price. © 2015, Indian Society of Agronomy. All rights reserved.

Singh T.,Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology | Singh T.,Regional Rainfed Lowland Rice Research Station
Indian Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2013

An on-farm trial was conducted during the winter (rabi) seasons of 2010–11 and 2011–12 at five farmers’ field, to validate, refine and popularize the technology developed at Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur, for managing weeds in wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.) emend. Fiori & Paol.] crop. Effectiveness of isoproturon @ 1.0 kg ai/ha and tank-mix application of metsulfuron-methyl with clodinafop @ 60 g ai/ha and sulfosulfuron @ 25 g ai/ha over farmer’s practice (2,4 D @ 0.75 kg ai/ha) was studied on weed growth and profitability of wheat. Tank-mix application of metsulfuron-methyl @ 4 g ai/ha with clodinafop and sulfosulfuron at 35 days after sowing significantly reduced the weed density and resulted in respectively 26.2% and 18.9% higher grain yield, net returns ((formula presented)12,997 and (formula presented)9,436), benefit: cost ratio (0.54 and 0.39) and energy output (27,077 MJ and 20,775 MJ) higher over farmer’s practice. © 2013, Indian Society of Agronomy. All rights reserved.

Rautaray S.K.,Regional Rainfed Lowland Rice Research Station | Sinhababu D.P.,Regional Rainfed Lowland Rice Research Station | Sinhababu D.P.,Indian Central Rice Research Institute
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2012

Field trials were conducted during 2003-07 to find out suitable rice varieties for rice-fish farming under organic nutrition in rainfed medium deepwater ecology at the experimental farm of Regional Rainfed Lowland Rice Research Station, Gerua, Assam. Among the rice varieties, highest grain yield (3.96 tonnes/ha) was recorded in Ranjit, followed by Durga, Piolee and Sarala. The combined direct and residual effect of kharif varieties on kharif rice-rabi rice sequence in terms of equivalent yield also revealed Ranjit as the best variety for kharif season followed by Durga and Piolee. In rabi season, long-duration variety Rupsundari performed better over the short-duration Vandana. Piolee showed better tolerance to natural submergence, which occurred for 10 days in 2004. Grain yield was highest (4.64 tonnes/ha) in the flood year due to inflow of nutrients (silt) with flood water. The fish yield was 472 kg/ha/10 months.

Singh T.,Regional Rainfed Lowland Rice Research Station | Rana K.S.,Regional Rainfed Lowland Rice Research Station | Satapathy B.S.,Regional Rainfed Lowland Rice Research Station
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2014

It can be summarized from the results obtained that mustard and lentil populations are well compatible in intercrop association with 2:2 paired row ratio, i.e. two row mustard paired (30/90 cm) followed by two rows of lentil as indicated by higher seed yield, mustard equivalent yield, HI, effective gain, LER, and SPI. Mustard crop appeared to be the dominant crop due to higher values of RCC, CR and aggressivity. Moisture conservation practices were not economically viable even though they positively affected seed and straw yield of mustard and lentil. The 100% RDF of mustard is recommended for mustard and lentil intercropping under rainfed conditions of northern India where these two crops are predominantly grown during the winter season.

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