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Banerjee I.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Behera A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | De K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Chattopadhyay S.,Variable Energy Cyclotron Center | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry | Year: 2015

99mTc-paclitaxel was synthesized by using sodium borohydride as a reducing agent. Greater than 95 % labelling efficiency was achieved. Radiochemical purity of the synthesized 99mTc-paclitaxel was validated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) scanner and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). 99mTc-paclitaxel passed in vitro stability tests. Biodistribution and scintigraphy studies were performed in Sprague–Dawley rats. The biodistribution study results of 99mTc-paclitaxel were related mainly to the metabolism and excretion routes followed by the parental drug, paclitaxel. Apart from that, biodistribution of 99mTc-paclitaxel was altered after pre-treatment with cold paclitaxel. Hence, 99mTc-paclitaxel may be used as a tracer for paclitaxel. © 2014, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary. Source

Banerjee I.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | De K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Mukherjee D.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Dey G.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | And 7 more authors.
Acta Biomaterialia | Year: 2016

Somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) especially subtype 2 (SSTR2) are overexpressed in glioma. By taking advantage of the specific expression of SSTR2 on both glioma neovasculature endothelial cells and glioma cells, we constructed Tyr-3-octreotide (TOC)-modified solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) loaded with paclitaxel (PTX) to enable tumor neovasculature and tumor cells dual-targeting chemotherapy. In this work, a TOC-polyethylene glycol-lipid (TOC-PEG-lipid) was successfully synthesized and used as a targeting molecule to enhance anticancer efficacy of PTX loaded sterically stabilized lipid nanoparticles. The prepared PTX-loaded SLN modified with TOC (PSM) was characterized by standard methods. In rat C6 glioma cells, PSM improved PTX induced apoptosis. Both tube formation assay and CD31 staining of treated orthotopic glioma tissues confirmed that PSM significantly improved the antiangiogenic ability of PTX in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Radiolabelled PSM achieved a much higher and specific accumulation within the glioma as suggested by the biodistribution and imaging studies. Furthermore, PSM exhibited improved anti-glioma efficacy over unmodified nanoparticles and Taxol in both subcutaneous and orthotopic tumor models. These findings collectively indicate that PSM holds great potential in improving the efficacy of anti-glioma therapy. Statement of Significance Somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) especially subtype 2 (SSTR2) are overexpressed in various mammalian cancer cells. Proliferating endothelial cells of neovasculature also express SSTR2. Tyr-3-octreotide (TOC) is a known ligand for SSTR2. We have successfully prepared paclitaxel-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles modified with TOC (PSM) having diameter less than 100 nm. We found that PSM improved anti-cancer efficacy of paclitaxel in SSTR2 positive glioma of rats. This improved anti-glioma efficiency of PSM can be attributed to dual-targeting (i.e. tumor cell and neovasculature targeting) efficiency of PSM and promoted anti-cancer drug accumulation at tumor site due to TOC modification of solid lipid nanoparticles. This particular study aims at widening the scope of octreotide-derivative modified nanocarrier by exploring dual-targeting potential of PSM. © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Source

Baishya R.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Nayak D.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Karmakar S.,Jadavpur University | Chattopadhyay S.,Variable Energy Cyclotron Center | And 4 more authors.
Chemical Biology and Drug Design | Year: 2015

Development of molecular imaging agents to target tumor has become a major trend in nuclear medicine. With the aim to develop new potential 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals for targeting tumor, we have synthesized 5-nitroimidazolyl amino acids and RGD-coupled 2-nitroimidazoles. Technetium-99m radiolabeling with high radiochemical purity (>90%) was achieved for all the compounds. The radiolabeled complexes exhibited substantial in vitro stability in saline, serum, and histidine solution (10-2 m). Cell binding studies in EAC and B16F10 cell lines also revealed rapid and comparatively high cellular internalization. Among all the compounds studied, the binding of 99mTc(CO)3-5 to B16F10 cells was moderately inhibited by the competitive peptide c[RGDfV], suggesting specificity of the radioligand toward αvβ3 receptor. However, no significant displacement of bound radioligand was observed when the binding of the 99mTc-labeled complexes to above cells was challenged with excess competitive peptide. Fluorescent microscopy study provided direct evidence of intracellular localization of 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein-labeled 2-nitroimidazolyl-RGD-peptide in αvβ3-positive B16F10 mouse melanoma cell line. The ligands caused only 8-13% of hemolysis toward rat erythrocytes at concentrations as high as 100 μm. Imaging and biodistribution studies were performed in Swiss albino mice bearing induced tumor. 99mTc-1 and 99mTc(CO)3-5 demonstrated a very favorable in vivo profile. Selective uptake and retention in tumor with encouraging tumor/muscle and tumor/blood ratio and significant cellular uptake of fluorescence-labeled-2-nitroimidazolyl RGD indicate the great potentiality of the pharmacophore for further evaluation as potential molecular imaging agent in cancer diagnosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Nayak D.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Baishya R.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Halder K.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Sen T.,Jadavpur University | And 4 more authors.
Metallomics | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to develop 99mTc(CO) 3-labeled fluoroquinolones as novel SPECT radiopharmaceuticals for imaging bacterial infection. Fluoroquinolones, e.g., ofloxacin (OFX), levofloxacin (LVX), lomefloxacin (LMX) and norfloxacin (NFX) were labeled with a fac-[99mTc(CO)3(H2O)3]+ precursor. The radiochemical purity of the radiopharmaceuticals exceeded 97% as determined by thin layer chromatography and HPLC. No further purification was necessary before injection. The Re(CO)3 complex of one of the fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin) was synthesized using [Re(CO)3(H 2O)3]OTf and Re(CO)5Br precursors in separate experiments and characterized by IR, NMR and mass spectroscopic analysis. These studies revealed the formation of a single species in which the piperazinyl nitrogen and the -COOH group attached to the benzoxazine ring system of quinolone were involved in co-ordination to the Re(CO)3 core. The HPLC elution pattern and retention time of the Re(CO)3-LVX complex were comparable to those of the corresponding 99mTc(CO) 3-complex proving their similarity. When incubated in isotonic saline and serum up to 24 h 99mTc(CO)3-labeled fluoroquinolones exhibited good in vitro stability. Biodistribution studies performed at different time points on rats intramuscularly infected with S. aureus as well as on rats with sterile inflammation revealed a higher uptake in the infected area than the turpentine induced inflamed area. The uptake in infected thigh was significant with 99mTc(CO)3-OFX followed by 99mTc(CO)3-LVX. The mean ratios of the uptake in infected/non-infected thighs were 4.75 and 4.27 at 8 h and 24 h, respectively, for 99mTc(CO)3-OFX and 4.42 and 4.18 at 24 h and 8 h, respectively, for 99mTc(CO)3-LVX. The above abscess to muscle ratios were higher than reported for 99mTc-ciprofloxacin and other 99mTc-labeled fluoroquinolones. Scintigraphy studies also showed a significant uptake in the infectious lesions suggesting that 99mTc(CO)3-fluoroquinolones might be useful as diagnostic agents for targeted delivery in bacterial infection. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012. Source

Behera A.,Indian Institute of Science | Banerjee I.,Indian Institute of Science | De K.,Indian Institute of Science | Munda R.N.,Indian Institute of Science | And 5 more authors.
Amino Acids | Year: 2013

Peptides are attracting increasing interest in nuclear oncology for targeted tumor diagnosis and therapy. We therefore synthesized new cyclic octapeptides conjugated with HYNIC by Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis. These were purified and analyzed by RP-HPLC, MALDI mass, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HSQC, HMBC, COSY and IR spectroscopy. Conformational analysis of the peptides was performed by circular dichroism spectroscopy, in pure water and trifluoroethanol-water (1:1), revealed the presence of strong secondary structural features like β-sheet and random coils. Labeling was performed with 99mTc using Tricine and EDDA as coligands by SnCl 2 method to get products with excellent radiochemical purity >99.5 %. Metabolic stability analysis did not show any evidence of breaking of the labeled compounds and formation of free 99mTc. Internalization studies were done and IC50 values were determined in somatostatin receptor-expressing C6 glioma cell line and rat brain cortex membrane, and the results compared with HYNIC-TOC as standard. The IC50 values of 99mTc-HYNIC-His3-Octreotate (21 ± 0.93 nM) and 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC (2.87 ± 0.41 nM) proved to be comparable. Biodistribution and image study on normal rat under gamma camera showed very high uptake in kidney and urine, indicating kidney as primary organ for metabolism and route of excretion. Biodistribution and image study on rats bearing C6 glioma tumor found high uptake in tumor (1.27 ± 0.15) and pancreas (1.71 ± 0.03). Using these findings, new derivatives can be prepared to develop 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals for imaging somatostatin receptor-positive tumors. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Wien. Source

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