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Dhananjayan V.,Salim Ali Center for Ornithology and Natural History | Dhananjayan V.,Regional Occupational Health Center Southern | Muralidharan S.,Salim Ali Center for Ornithology and Natural History
BioMed Research International | Year: 2013

This study provides information on the current status of contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the tissues of endangered White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalensis in India. Chemical analyses revealed detectable amounts of PAHs, PCBs, and OCPs. Concentration ranges of PAHs, PCBs, and OCPs in tissues were 60-2037 ng/g, 30-5790 ng/g, and 3.2-5836 ng/g wet weight, respectively. 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p′-DDE) concentrations ranged from below detectable level to 599 ng/g wet weight, representing more than 90% of the total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Among the various OCPs analyzed, p,p′-DDE was detected most frequently. All the contaminants recorded show higher accumulation in liver than other tissues. Levels of contaminants measured in the tissues of vulture are comparable with the levels documented in a number of avian species and are lower than those reported to have caused deleterious effects. Although no threat is expected from the current level of contamination, the presence of varying levels of contaminants and their additive or synergistic toxicity is a cause of concern to vultures. Values reported in this study can serve as guideline for future research. © 2013 V. Dhananjayan and S. Muralidharan. Source


Dhananjayan V.,Salim Ali Center for Ornithology and Natural History | Dhananjayan V.,Regional Occupational Health Center Southern
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2013

As part of a large study on assessing the impact of environmental contaminants in Indian avifauna, the presence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in liver tissues of 16 species of birds collected from Ahmedabad, India during 2005-2007 was quantified. The higher concentrations of total organochlorine pesticides were detected in livers of shikra Accipiter badius (3. 43 ± 0. 99 μg/g wet wt) and the lower levels in white ibis Pseudibis papillosa (0. 02 ± 0. 01 μg/g wet wt). Marked differences in the concentrations of total OCPs occurred among species (p < 0. 05). Concentrations of DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and isomers, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide were lower than the concentrations reported for various species of birds in India. Accumulation pattern of organochlorine pesticides in birds was, in general, in the order HCH > DDT > heptachlor epoxide > dieldrin. Among various pesticides analyzed, p,p′-DDE and β-HCH contributed maximum towards the total OCPs and study indicates the continuous use of lindane and DDT for agriculture and public health purpose, respectively. Although no serious threat is posed by any of the organochlorine pesticides detected in the present study species, continued monitoring is recommended. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Dhananjayan V.,Regional Occupational Health Center Southern
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2012

In order to understand whether organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are responsible for the mortality of waterbirds in Nalaban bird sanctuary in Chilika Lake, the current investigation was carried out in tissues of 11 individuals comprising 7 species of birds. One or more residues were detected in all the tissues of birds analysed. Concentration of ∑HCH, ∑DDT, and ∑PCBs were ranged from below detectable level (BDL)- 811 ng/g, BDL -1,987 ng/g and BDL -1,027 ng/g respectively. PCBs levels were less than the food and drug administration's (FDA) action limits. Although varying levels of residues were detected among tissues, they do not appear to be responsible for the mass mortality of waterfowl. However, the need for additional research is heightened when considering that some of the birds are classified as a globally protected species by the international bodies. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Source


Dhananjayan V.,Salim Ali Center for Ornithology and Natural History | Dhananjayan V.,Regional Occupational Health Center Southern
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2013

Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in liver tissues of seven species of birds collected from Ahmedabad, India during 2005-2007. All the samples collected were dead as victims of kite flying. Concentrations of ∑PAHs in livers of birds were ranged from 110 ± 32. 6 ng/g wet wt (1,078 ± 320 lipid wt) in common myna Acridotheres tristis to 382 ± 90. 1 ng/g (2,388 ± 563 lipid wt) in white-backed vulture. Statistically significant (p < 0. 05) differences in ∑PAHs were observed among species. However, year of collection and sex of birds did not show significant differences in concentrations of PAHs. The levels of ∑PAHs measured in the present study species were higher than the levels documented for a number of avian species and were lower than those reported to have deleterious effects on survival or reproduction of birds. Presence of PAH residues in birds of Ahmedabad city show the continuous input of PAHs through environmental exposure. Although no threat is posed by any of the hydrocarbons detected, continuous monitoring of breeding colonies of birds is recommended in unpolluted reference sites as well as polluted sites. It is also the first account of a comprehensive analysis of PAHs in various species of birds in India. Therefore, the values reported in this study can serve as baseline values for future research. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Barman T.,Regional Occupational Health Center Southern | Kalahasthi R.,Regional Occupational Health Center Southern | Rajmohan H.R.,Regional Occupational Health Center Southern
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology | Year: 2014

This study was carried out to determin. The effect of Pb exposure o. The status of platelet indices in workers exposed to Pb during lead-acid battery plant process. Platelet indices and blood lead levels (BLLs) were determined in 429 male workers. BLLs were determined by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Platelet indices i. The samples were quantified by usin. The Sysmex KX-21 hematology analyzer. The levels of platelet count (PLT), plateletcrit (PCT) and mean platelet mass (MPM) were significantly decreased and platelet distribution width (PDW), platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR) and mean platelet volume were increased with an increase in BLLs. The results of linear multiple regression analysis showed tha. The platelet count (β-0.143, P=0.005), PCT (β-0.115, P=0.023) and MPM (β-0.110, P=0.030) were negatively associated with BLLs and P-LCR (β 0.122, P=0.016) was positively associated with BLLs. The variable of body mass index showed a positive association with PCT (β 0.105, P=0.032) and MPM (β 0.101, P=0.039). The results o. The study may indicate that lead exposure may impair coagulation function through endothelial tissue injury and reduction of nitric oxide. © 2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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