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Saha A.,Regional Occupational Health Center Eastern | Mukherjee A.K.,Regional Occupational Health Center Eastern | Ravichandran B.,Regional Occupational Health Center Southern
Toxicology and Industrial Health | Year: 2016

Frequent and repetitive activities in job and awkward postures are shown as major contributors of musculoskeletal problems in most of the occupational health studies; however, efforts to explore newer risk factor are important to plan interventional measures. In this backdrop, this study examined contribution of fluoride exposure to musculoskeletal complaints. A cross-sectional interviewer-administered questionnaire survey was conducted involving 180 randomly selected subjects from a metal smelting industry. Clinical examination of the subjects was also performed to assess their health status and morbidity details. Assessment of personal exposure to particulate and gaseous fluoride at workplace was conducted. Urinary fluoride level was also examined in post-shift samples collected from study subjects. The mean age of the study subjects was 39.1 (±6.7) years. Majority of the workers (42.5%) were engaged in pot room. About 54% workers were suffering from backache and 66% subjects had joint pain. Exposure of workers to both particulate and gaseous fluoride and post-working shift urinary fluoride level was significantly higher in pot-room workers in comparison with all other workers. It was observed that age (odds ratio (OR): 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18-2.34), drinking untreated water (OR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.03-2.76), working in pot room (OR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.13-1.91) and urinary fluoride level (OR: 2.71; 95% CI: 1.81-3.75) had significant effects on musculoskeletal complaints. This study concludes that along with other predictors such as nature of work, posture at work and age of worker, exposure to fluoride also has significant role in the occurrence of musculoskeletal morbidity. © The Author(s) 2015.


PubMed | Regional Occupational Health Center Eastern and Regional Occupational Health Center Southern
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxicology and industrial health | Year: 2016

Frequent and repetitive activities in job and awkward postures are shown as major contributors of musculoskeletal problems in most of the occupational health studies; however, efforts to explore newer risk factor are important to plan interventional measures. In this backdrop, this study examined contribution of fluoride exposure to musculoskeletal complaints. A cross-sectional interviewer-administered questionnaire survey was conducted involving 180 randomly selected subjects from a metal smelting industry. Clinical examination of the subjects was also performed to assess their health status and morbidity details. Assessment of personal exposure to particulate and gaseous fluoride at workplace was conducted. Urinary fluoride level was also examined in post-shift samples collected from study subjects. The mean age of the study subjects was 39.1 (6.7) years. Majority of the workers (42.5%) were engaged in pot room. About 54% workers were suffering from backache and 66% subjects had joint pain. Exposure of workers to both particulate and gaseous fluoride and post-working shift urinary fluoride level was significantly higher in pot-room workers in comparison with all other workers. It was observed that age (odds ratio (OR): 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18-2.34), drinking untreated water (OR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.03-2.76), working in pot room (OR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.13-1.91) and urinary fluoride level (OR: 2.71; 95% CI: 1.81-3.75) had significant effects on musculoskeletal complaints. This study concludes that along with other predictors such as nature of work, posture at work and age of worker, exposure to fluoride also has significant role in the occurrence of musculoskeletal morbidity.


Majumdar D.,University of Calcutta | Majumdar D.,Indian National Environmental Engineering Research Institute | Mukherjee A.K.,Regional Occupational Health Center Eastern | Mukhopadhaya K.,Regional Occupational Health Center Eastern | Sen S.,University of Calcutta
Indoor and Built Environment | Year: 2012

Mono-aromatic hydrocarbons, namely benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and isomers of xylene (BTEX) were studied within a group of typical urban residences. The average residential indoor levels of BTEX were 42.0, 69.3, 22.8, 52.1 and 21.6μg•m-3, respectively. The indoor level was found to be significantly dependent on the type of fuel used and extent of ventilation but not on location of the residence or kitchen placement inside the residence. The average indoor/outdoor concentration ratio observed for BTEX > 1; and this indicates the presence of indoor sources for these compounds along with infiltration of outdoor air. The relative variability of the target compounds reveals that indoor sources, other than domestic fuel, like consumer products, cooking, etc., contribute significantly for xylenes and least for benzene. Also with increasing ventilation, the intrusion of outdoor air has definite contribution in increasing the indoor level in descending order for benzene, toluene, m-, p-xylene and ethylbenzene. For o-xylene, a removal effect was observed with increasing rate of ventilation.The human health risk estimation reveals that the average integrated lifetime cancer risk considering the exposure to benzene and ethylbenzene due to residing for only 15 years in such indoor conditions is 2.9E-05, which is sufficiently higher than the acceptable risk of 1.0E-06. © The Author(s), 2011.


Dutta C.,University of Calcutta | Chatterjee A.,University of Calcutta | Jana T.K.,University of Calcutta | Mukherjee A.K.,Regional Occupational Health Center Eastern | Sen S.,University of Calcutta
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2010

A novel and straight forward method is adopted to segregate the contribution of primary and secondary sources of formaldehyde based on the rates of its formation and removal at different times in the urban atmosphere of Kolkata. To achieve the above objective, the diurnal and seasonal mixing ratios of formaldehyde were measured during dry season at two busy roadside locations. The maximal secondary formation fluxes of formaldehyde during summer and winter were found to be 6.63×107 and 1.23×107moleculescm-3s-1, respectively. Apart from formaldehyde (C1), several other carbonyls were quantified in this study. An overall good correlation between acetaldehyde (C2) and propanal (C3) indicates the contribution of vehicular emission to the carbonyl budget. The secondary formaldehyde contributions in summer and winter were about 71% and 32%, respectively. The relative mean contributions of C1, C2 and ozone towards generation of OH fluxes in summer were found to be 1.56×107, 6.96×105, and 1.29×107moleculescm-3s-1, respectively, which were 3.2, 3.4 and 1.6 times higher than those in winter. © 2010.


PubMed | Jadavpur University, R G Kar Medical College & Hospital, Regional Occupational Health Center Eastern, ESI Hospital and The Jute Corporation of India Ltd.
Type: | Journal: Pain research and treatment | Year: 2016

Introduction. WHO recognizes low back pain as one of the most important ergonomic stressors. Therefore, the present study was designed to find out the magnitude of the problem among jute mill workers in India and identify possible associations. Methodology. This cross-sectional workplace based study was conducted among eight (8) selected jute mills of India. Subjects with self-reported back pain for at least last 12 weeks were included and n = 717 male jute mill workers actively engaged in work entered the study and completed all assessments. Results. Among all participants 55% (n = 392) had current chronic low back pain. Age was an important association with subjects in the age group of 40-59 years more likely to have pain (p = 0.02, OR 1.44). Regarding ergonomic risk factors lifting of load of more than 20kg (p = 0.04, OR 1.42) and repetitive movements of limbs (p = 0.03, OR 0.67) were significant associations of chronic low back pain. Conclusion. This study identified a significant prevalence of current chronic low back pain among jute mill workers. Regarding ergonomic risk factors the present study has identified two significant associations: lifting of load above 20kg and repetitive movements of limbs. Therefore, this study has identified need for workplace interventions in this occupational group employing approximately 3,50,000 workers in India.


Saha A.,Regional Occupational Health Center Eastern | Sadhu H.G.,National Institute of Occupational Health
Journal of Occupational Health | Year: 2013

Workplace injuries are of concern in adolescent and child workers. The factors of such injuries are important for injury prevention. This study explored the predictors of injury in such workers. Methods: This study was carried out in stone quarries and included 147 children and adolescent workers (81 males and 66 females). The mean age of the subjects was 11.3 years. An interviewer-administered questionnaire survey was performed to collect personal, occupational, morbidity and injury details. Descriptive analysis followed by logistic regression was undertaken to obtain the contribution of different factors on workplace injury occurrence. Results: Age (OR: 0.73 95% CI: 0.53-0.99), nature of work (OR: 29.4 95% CI: 2.5-340.7), work hours per day (OR: 1.77 95% CI: 1.3-2.3), musculoskeletal complaint (OR: 15.8 95% CI: 4.8-52.2) and education (OR: 0.24 95% CI: 0.08-0.7) showed significant effects on workplace injuries. However, duration of employment and body mass index had no significant contribution. Conclusions: This study stresses the need to strictly stop employment of child labor in such occupations in accordance with the national law. It shows that apart from nature of job, age of worker, work hours/day, musculoskeletal morbidity and education are significant predictors of occupational injuries and that training of such workers with regard to safe practices, provision for education, alleviation of musculoskeletal morbidity, suitable restriction of work hours/day and awareness generation among parents regarding the imminent danger of such labor in their children will ensure a positive impact in protecting young and child workers from occupational injuries.


Saha A.,Regional Occupational Health Center Eastern | Tripathi S.R.,National Institute of Occupational Health
Toxicology International | Year: 2014

Background: One major effect of occupational solvent exposure is central nervous system (CNS) impairment, ranging from depression to encephalopathy with cognitive, behavioral changes. Exposures in industries being varied, classification of health outcomes for different exposures is important. Objectives: This study assessed neurobehavioral performance of synthetic resin manufacturing workers exposed to organic solvent, mainly formalin. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study selected subjects by random selection from all such workers of an Indian city. Questionnaire survey and assessment by a neurobehavioral test battery (NBT) was undertaken. Results: Comparison between actual and allied workers observed significant difference in tweezer dexterity, card sorting and backward memory scores. Significant effect of exposure was observed on tweezer dexterity, card sorting, and hand dynamometer scores. Conclusion: Changes of neurobehavioral performance might occur following solvent exposure and these changes might have a relationship with the quantum of exposure. Periodic examination of workers with NBT is needed for detection of early neurotoxic effects.


Chattopadhyay B.P.,Regional Occupational Health Center Eastern
Journal of environmental science & engineering | Year: 2011

The pulmonary function status of the Kolkata inhabitants was evaluated during rainy and winter seasons. The pulmonary function tests (PFT) of the 1st study was carried out in the months of July to August when the environment is pollution free and the 2nd study was carried out between November to January when the environment is polluted. In the 1st study a total of 162 (male-88, female-74) inhabitants were investigated and again they were repeated in same way in the 2nd study. To evaluate the respiratory function status, Slow Vital Capacity (SVC), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) were recorded. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec as the percentage of FVC (FEV1%), forced expiratory flow at 200mL-1200 mL, 25-75% and 75-85% were calculated from the same tracings. Males were having higher mean PFT values compared to females because of sex difference. In the 2nd study PFT values were significantly lower compared to 1st study. According to different durations of stay category the PFT values were significantly reduced in winter season. The regression lines showed decrement as the duration of stay on that area was increased and it was more in 2nd study compared to 1st study. In both studies the PFT values found higher in high economic class of people. Between the same economic class of people PFT values were significantly lower in winter season. Respiratory impairments were also found higher during winter and males were having more impairment compared to females. Respiratory impairments in both sexes were more in winter and low economic class of people had maximum respiratory impairments. In rainy season and winter season the respiratory impairments were less in non-smokers. Males had more respiratory function impairments compared to females.


Chattopadhyay B.P.,Regional Occupational Health Center Eastern | Hossain M.,Regional Occupational Health Center Eastern | Alam Sk.J.,Regional Occupational Health Center Eastern
Indian Journal of Environmental Protection | Year: 2015

Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were made in 604 healthy non-smoking subjects of both sexes of Kolkata in which men-227 and women-377 with an age range of 18 to 60 year. Except peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) all PFT were made by spirometric methods using Spirovit- Sp-10 and techniques followed as recommended by American Thoracic Society. PEFR was recorded by Wright's peak flow meter. Prediction equations were derived on the basis of age and height for all the ventilatory PFT except FEV,% and FET. The prediction equation for vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV), forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75%) and FEF75-85% were reliable. The VC, FVC and FEV, values of the subjects of the present study standardized for age and height were much lower than the studies of Americans, Canadians, Caucasians and Europeans. On the comparison with the data reported from other parts of our country it is revealed that the VC, FVC, FEV1 values of the current study are very close and comparable and some PFT parameters are lower than the present study. ©2015 - Kalpana Corporation.


Chattopadhyay B.P.,Regional Occupational Health Center Eastern | Das A.,Regional Occupational Health Center Eastern | Alam S.J.,Regional Occupational Health Center Eastern
Indian Journal of Environmental Protection | Year: 2015

Respiratory disorders are among the most common occupational diseases. The study has been under taken to assess the respiratory function status of the construction workers. The construction workers are exposed to harmful dust particles regularly which affect their respiratory system. A standardized respiratory function test questionnaire designed and covering all the informations related to their health, smoking habit and work history. Total 207 construction workers and 63 control subjects were under gone pulmonary function test {PFT). Pulmonary function test values were significantly lowered in the construction workers compared to controls. There are gradual decrements of the lung volumes were found in both control and study group as age advances. Construction workers were categorically divided according to their duration of exposure into <=10 years, 11-20 years, 21-30 years and 31-40 years, respectively. No such trend of gradual reduction of PFT values were found according to duration of exposure increased. The lung volumes are found higher in non-smokers followed by the smokers and ex-smokers. In control subjects little higher values were found among the smokers compared to non-smokers but the ex-smokers have the lowest values. Among the study group 5.8% workers have respiratory function impairments in which 2.42% showed restrictive type, 2.42% obstructive type and 1% workers have combined restrictive and obstructive type of impairments. In control subjects 4,76% showed restrictive type pulmonary function impairment. The study results demonstrated that occupational exposure created harm to the workers respiratory system, causing respiratory function impairment. ©2015 - Kalpana Corporation.

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