Regional Nephrology Unit

Belfast, United Kingdom

Regional Nephrology Unit

Belfast, United Kingdom

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Spithoven E.M.,University of Groningen | Kramer A.,University of Amsterdam | Meijer E.,University of Groningen | Orskov B.,Copenhagen University | And 40 more authors.
Kidney International | Year: 2014

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a major cause of end-stage kidney failure, but is often identified early and therefore amenable to timely treatment. Interventions known to postpone the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in non-ADPKD patients have also been tested in ADPKD patients, but with inconclusive results. To help resolve this we determined changes in RRT incidence rates as an indicator for increasing effective renoprotection over time in ADPKD. We analyzed data from the European Renal Association-European Dialyses and Transplant Association Registry on 315,444 patients starting RRT in 12 European countries between 1991 and 2010, grouped into four 5-year periods. Of them, 20,596 were due to ADPKD. Between the first and last period the mean age at onset of RRT increased from 56.6 to 58.0 years. The age- and gender-adjusted incidence rate of RRT for ADPKD increased slightly over the four periods from 7.6 to 8.3 per million population. No change over time was found in the incidence of RRT for ADPKD up to age 50, whereas in recent time periods the incidence in patients above the age of 70 clearly increased. Among countries there was a significant positive association between RRT take-on rates for non-ADPKD kidney disease and ADPKD. Thus, the increased age at onset of RRT is most likely due to an increased access for elderly ADPKD patients or lower competing risk prior to the start of RRT rather than the consequence of effective emerging renoprotective treatments for ADPKD. © 2014 International Society of Nephrology.


Calestani M.,University of Southampton | Tonkin-Crine S.,University of Southampton | Pruthi R.,Southmead Hospital | Leydon G.,University of Southampton | And 14 more authors.
Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: There is variation in time to listing and rates of listing for transplantation between renal units in the UK. While research has mainly focused on healthcare organization, little is known about patient perspectives of entry onto the transplant waiting list. This qualitative study aimed to explore patients' views and experiences of kidney transplant listing.METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients aged under 75, who were on dialysis and on the transplant waiting list, not on the waiting list, undergoing assessment for listing or who had received a transplant. Patients were recruited from a purposive sample of nine UK renal units, which included transplanting and non-transplanting units and units with high and low wait-listing patterns. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis.RESULTS: Fifty-three patients (5-7 per renal unit) were interviewed. Patients reported that they had received little information about the listing process. Some patients did not know if they were listed or had found they were not listed when they had thought they were on the list. Others expressed distress when they felt they had been excluded from potential listing based on age and/or comorbidity and felt the process was unfair. Many patients were not aware of pre-emptive transplantation and believed they had to be on dialysis before being able to be listed. There was some indication that pre-emptive transplantation was discussed more often in transplant than non-transplant units. Lastly, some patients were reluctant to consider family members as potential donors as they reported they would feel 'guilty' if the donor suffered subsequent negative effects.CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest a need to review current practice to further understand individual and organizational reasons for the renal unit variation identified in patient understanding of transplant listing. The communication of information warrants attention to ensure patients are fully informed about the listing process and opportunity for pre-emptive transplantation in a way that is meaningful and understandable to them. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.


Li B.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Cairns J.A.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Fotheringham J.,Sheffield Kidney Institute | Tomson C.R.,Southmead Hospital | And 12 more authors.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation | Year: 2015

Background In a number of countries, reimbursement to hospitals providing renal dialysis services is set according to a fixed tariff. While the cost of maintenance dialysis and transplant surgery are amenable to a system of fixed tariffs, patients with established renal failure commonly present with comorbid conditions that can lead to variations in the need for hospitalization beyond the provision of renal replacement therapy. Methods Patient-level cost data for incident renal replacement therapy patients in England were obtained as a result of linkage of the Hospital Episodes Statistics dataset to UK Renal Registry data. Regression models were developed to explore variations in hospital costs in relation to treatment modality, number of years on treatment and factors such as age and comorbidities. The final models were then used to predict annual costs for patients with different sets of characteristics. Results Excluding the cost of renal replacement therapy itself, inpatient costs generally decreased with number of years on treatment for haemodialysis and transplant patients, whereas costs for patients receiving peritoneal dialysis remained constant. Diabetes was associated with higher mean annual costs for all patients irrespective of treatment modality and hospital setting. Age did not have a consistent effect on costs. Conclusions Combining predicted hospital costs with the fixed costs of renal replacement therapy showed that the total cost differential for a patient continuing on dialysis rather than receiving a transplant is considerable following the first year of renal replacement therapy, thus reinforcing the longer-term economic advantage of transplantation over dialysis for the health service. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.


PubMed | NHS Blood and Transplant, Regional Nephrology Unit, University of Birmingham, Southmead Hospital and 6 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association | Year: 2014

There is variation in time to listing and rates of listing for transplantation between renal units in the UK. While research has mainly focused on healthcare organization, little is known about patient perspectives of entry onto the transplant waiting list. This qualitative study aimed to explore patients views and experiences of kidney transplant listing.Semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients aged under 75, who were on dialysis and on the transplant waiting list, not on the waiting list, undergoing assessment for listing or who had received a transplant. Patients were recruited from a purposive sample of nine UK renal units, which included transplanting and non-transplanting units and units with high and low wait-listing patterns. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis.Fifty-three patients (5-7 per renal unit) were interviewed. Patients reported that they had received little information about the listing process. Some patients did not know if they were listed or had found they were not listed when they had thought they were on the list. Others expressed distress when they felt they had been excluded from potential listing based on age and/or comorbidity and felt the process was unfair. Many patients were not aware of pre-emptive transplantation and believed they had to be on dialysis before being able to be listed. There was some indication that pre-emptive transplantation was discussed more often in transplant than non-transplant units. Lastly, some patients were reluctant to consider family members as potential donors as they reported they would feel guilty if the donor suffered subsequent negative effects.Findings suggest a need to review current practice to further understand individual and organizational reasons for the renal unit variation identified in patient understanding of transplant listing. The communication of information warrants attention to ensure patients are fully informed about the listing process and opportunity for pre-emptive transplantation in a way that is meaningful and understandable to them.


PubMed | NHS Blood and Transplant, Regional Nephrology Unit, Southmead Hospital, University of Southampton and 6 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association | Year: 2015

In a number of countries, reimbursement to hospitals providing renal dialysis services is set according to a fixed tariff. While the cost of maintenance dialysis and transplant surgery are amenable to a system of fixed tariffs, patients with established renal failure commonly present with comorbid conditions that can lead to variations in the need for hospitalization beyond the provision of renal replacement therapy.Patient-level cost data for incident renal replacement therapy patients in England were obtained as a result of linkage of the Hospital Episodes Statistics dataset to UK Renal Registry data. Regression models were developed to explore variations in hospital costs in relation to treatment modality, number of years on treatment and factors such as age and comorbidities. The final models were then used to predict annual costs for patients with different sets of characteristics.Excluding the cost of renal replacement therapy itself, inpatient costs generally decreased with number of years on treatment for haemodialysis and transplant patients, whereas costs for patients receiving peritoneal dialysis remained constant. Diabetes was associated with higher mean annual costs for all patients irrespective of treatment modality and hospital setting. Age did not have a consistent effect on costs.Combining predicted hospital costs with the fixed costs of renal replacement therapy showed that the total cost differential for a patient continuing on dialysis rather than receiving a transplant is considerable following the first year of renal replacement therapy, thus reinforcing the longer-term economic advantage of transplantation over dialysis for the health service.

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