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Babu B.V.,Regional Medical Research Center
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2010

Objective: To describe the perceptions of community members and programme partners regarding severity, management and impact of adverse reactions on mass drug administration (MDA) compliance. Methods: Based on various qualitative data collected from five districts of Orissa, India, where MDA had been implemented during 2002 and 2004. The qualitative surveys included focus group discussions with community members and health workers, and semi-structured interviews with key informants in the community, medical officers at primary health centres, district level health officers and private practitioners. Results: It showed that many people suffered from adverse reactions, though the reactions were not serious. The paper reported different ways of management of adverse reactions at the community level. The impact of adverse reactions on MDA compliance was serious, as many people did not consume the drug due to fear of adverse reactions. The rumours of adverse reactions and news in media deterred people from consuming the tablets. Conclusion: All categories of respondents indicates the need of more information to address the problem of adverse reactions during MDA. The present paper warrants incorporating the messages on adverse reactions during health communication and social mobilization campaigns of MDA. © 2010 Hainan Medical College.

Context: Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae) is an aromatic, herbaceous, perennial plant commonly known as wormwood. Artemisia absinthium is traditionally used as an anthelmintic, antiseptic, antispasmodic and for bacillary dysentery, cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Objective: The essential oil composition of the leaves of A. absinthium growing in the Western Ghats region of North West Karnataka, India, is investigated for the first time in this region and the oil was screened for antimicrobial properties. Materials and methods: The chemical composition of the hydro-distilled essential oil obtained from the leaves of A. absinthium was analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. The oil was tested against five Gram positive and, eight Gram negative bacteria and three fungi by the tube-dilution method at a concentration range of 5000-9 μg/mL. Results: Results demonstrated that the leave oil was found to be rich in oxygenated monoterpenes (39.7% and 41.1%). The major compounds were borneol (18.7% and16.7%), methyl hinokiate (11.9% and 12.9%), isobornyl acetate (4.0% and 4.7%), β-gurjunene (3.8% and 4.4%) and caryophyllene oxide (3.7% and 4.3%), among 64 identified compounds, comprising 91.7% and 90.1% of the total oil. The organism Micrococcus luteus was found more susceptible to the oil with an MIC value of 25 ± 4 μg/mL, followed by Micrococcus flavus, Bacillus subtilis, Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus fumigatus with MIC values of 58 ± 8, 65 ± 8, 84 ± 15 and 91 ± 13 μg/mL, respectively. Discussion and conclusion: The oil showing antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi validate the traditional use of the plant as an antiseptic. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Balgir R.S.,Regional Medical Research Center
Online Journal of Health and Allied Sciences | Year: 2011

Tribal health is an important aspect of development and progress of the people. This study pertaining to genetic disease burden, nutritional status and biomedical anthropological assessment with particular reference to determinants of tribal health care has been carried out among the four tribes, namely, Bhatra, Gond, Kondh and Paraja of Orissa residing adjacent to the bordering districts of Chhattisgarh The population genetic structure of a tribe is the outcome of socio-cultural practices, bio-psychological behavior, genetic constitution, and eco-environmental conditions. Tribal communities in India, in general and of Chhattisgarh state in particular, are highly vulnerable to various genetic diseases, nutritional deficiencies and unrealistic practices and lack of access to basic health facilities. A total of 815 blood samples comprising of 166 Bhatra, 219 Gond, 254 Kondh and 176 Paraja tribes was collected randomly under aseptic conditions. The frequency of sickle cell hemoglobinopathy (3.2-22.5%), β-thalassemia trait (0.5-8.5%), and G6PD enzyme deficiency (6-16%) is very high among the tribes of Chhattisgarh. However, the prevalence of Rhesus negative blood group is very low (0-0.6%). The frequency of hereditary hemolytic anemia is also high among the tribals of Chhattisgarh. Both communicable and non-communicable diseases harbor the tribal population. The nutritional deficiencies are rampant. Tribal people are engrossed with superstitions and have faith in traditional healers who practice magico-religious rites along with indigenous herbal treatment for the common ailments. Traditional folk medicine and health culture play a significant role in shaping tribal life. These health practices differ from one tribe to another. Unless locality specific, tribe specific and need-based health care system is evolved which should be appropriate, acceptable, accessible, and affordable, the true goal of health for all cannot be achieved in India.

Mahapatra N.,Regional Medical Research Center
Tropical biomedicine | Year: 2012

A focal outbreak of malaria at Sialimal sub-centre of Balasore district of Orissa was reported during the month of March, 2010. Three villages of the above block were affected. Regional Medical Research Centre, Bhubaneswar has conducted an entomological survey and a central clinic simultaneously, with door to door household survey to identify the fever cases. Within a span of 18 days around 172 fever cases were reported with Slide Positivity Rate (SPR) of 24.4% and Pf % of 81%. The malaria epidemiological data of the sub-centre area for last three years indicates that the area is non endemic for malaria (API was 0.81). Entomological survey revealed the presence of three known vectors of malaria i.e. Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles annularis and Anopheles subpictus (local vector). Per Man Hour Density (PMHD) of these three species were 4.2, 2.8 and 10.8 respectively. Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites were detected in two An. culicifacies, in one An. annularis and in one An. subpictus. Larval density of Anopheline mosquitoes per dip ranged between 12 to 20. The vectors were found to be resistant to DDT but susceptible to synthetic pyrethroid. With this finding necessary remedial measures were taken by the government to curtail the transmission.

Kumar P.,KIIT University | Rao G.N.,KIIT University | Pal B.B.,Regional Medical Research Center | Pal A.,KIIT University
International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2014

Glial cells are very important for normal brain function and alterations in their activity due to hyperglycemia, could contribute to diabetes-related cognitive dysfunction. Oxidative insults often cause rapid changes in almost all cells including glial cells. However, pathophysiologic mechanisms that lead to diabetic complications are not completely elucidated. Therefore, we examined whether elevated glucose levels directly or indirectly disrupt antioxidant defense mechanisms causing alterations in signaling pathways, cell cycle dysregulation, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species-mediated apoptosis in glial cells. Findings of this study demonstrated that exposure of glial cells to high glucose markedly induces cellular and molecular injuries, as evidenced by elevated levels of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, biomolecules damage, cell cycle dysregulation, decrease in antioxidant enzymes, and decrease in cell viability. Pretreatment of cells with N-acetyl-l-cysteine reduced high glucose-induced cytotoxicity by increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes, and decreasing the number of apoptotic cells. Further, at molecular level high glucose treatment resulted in a significant increase in phosphorylation of Akt, MAPKs, tuberin, down regulation of 8-oxoG-DNA glycosylase and increase in 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine accumulations. Pretreatment of cells with N-acetyl-l-cysteine, phosphatidylinositol3-kinase/Akt and ERK1/2 inhibitors completely abolished the apoptotic effects of high glucose. Moreover, N-acetyl-l-cysteine significantly inhibited reactive oxygen/nitrogen species generation, elevated antioxidants levels, inhibited Akt, ERK1/2, tuberin phosphorylation, decreased 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine accumulation and upregulated 8-oxoG-DNA glycosylase expression. Our results demonstrate that high glucose induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation of glial cells, which may be mediated by the phosphorylation of tuberin, down regulation of 8-oxoG-DNA glycosylase and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine accumulation via activation of Akt and ERK1/2MAPK pathways. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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