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Kaevska M.,Veterinary Research Institute | Sterba J.,Faculty Hospital Brno | Svobodova J.,Regional Institute of Public Health | Pavlik I.,Veterinary Research Institute
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2014

Non-tuberculous mycobacteria are increasingly described as infectious agents in immunocompromised patients. A 17-year-old male patient suffering from secondary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and treated with chemotherapeutic agents was admitted to hospital due to pleuropneumonia. Mycobacterium neoaurum was cultured repeatedly from his sputum and, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (M. a. avium) was detected by IS901 qPCR from detached fragments of his intestinal mucosa. We attempted to determine the possible sources of infection by analysing environmental samples from the closed oncology unit and conventional unit in the hospital, and from the patient's home residence and places which he frequented. The environment of the patient harboured mycobacteria (41 isolates in total); however, M. neoaurum was not recovered. M. a. avium was detected by qPCR in the environmental samples from a small flock of hens kept by his neighbour. Although it was not confirmed by DNA fingerprinting methods, the M. a. avium infection could have been acquired through the eating of incompletely cooked eggs. © 2013 Cambridge University Press. Source

Hubka V.,Charles University | Mencl K.,Pardubice Regional Hospital Inc. | Skorepova M.,Charles University | Lyskova P.,Regional Institute of Public Health | Zalabska E.,Pardubice Regional Hospital Inc.
Medical Mycology | Year: 2011

Chaetomium species have been rarely described as aetiological agents of invasive and dermatomycotic infections in humans. The majority of cases have been reported within the last two decades. Treatment failed in most of these cases. In this paper we present two cases in which Chaetomium spp. can be clearly identified as an aetiological agent in pathological conditions. In the first report, we describe a new aetiological agent, Chaetomium brasiliense, which was implicated in a case of otitis externa in a patient with spinocellular carcinoma basis cranii. The patient had been repeatedly treated for relapsing otitis externa and had previously undergone surgery several times for otitis media. The fungal aetiology was confirmed by repeated positive culture and histologic studies. The second case involved onychomycosis with strikingly brown nail discoloration due to Chaetomium globosum in an otherwise healthy patient. The nail lesion was successfully cured by oral terbinafine. The determination of both species was supported by sequencing of rDNA regions. The morphological aspect of Chaetomium spp. identification is also discussed. In vitro antifungal susceptibility tests demonstrated that both isolates were susceptible to terbinafine and azole derivates except fluconazole. Amphotericin B was effective only against the C. brasiliense strain. We review the literature to summarize clinical presentations, histologic findings, and treatment strategies. © 2011 ISHAM. Source

Petrlikova E.,Charles University | Waisser K.,Charles University | Divisova H.,Charles University | Husakova P.,Charles University | And 4 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2010

New 3-(4-alkylphenyl)-4-thioxo-2H-1,3-benzoxazine-2(3H)-ones and 3-(4-alkylphenyl)-2H-1,3-benzoxazine-2,4(3H)-dithiones were synthesized. The compounds were tested for in vitro antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium and two strains of Mycobacterium kansasii. The antimycobacterial activity increased with the replacement of the carbonyl group by the thiocarbonyl group in the starting 3-(4-alkylphenyl)-2H-1, 3-benzoxazine-2,4(3H)-diones. The most active derivatives were more active than isonicotinhydrazide (INH). Free-Wilson analysis was also carried out and the activity contribution was examined. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Novotna E.,Charles University | Waisser K.,Charles University | Kunes J.,Charles University | Palat K.,Charles University | And 4 more authors.
Archiv der Pharmazie | Year: 2014

New quaternary ammonium salt-type compounds with lipophilic cholesterol and terpene moieties were synthesized. The compounds showed promising antibacterial and antimycobacterial activities. Those compounds containing the cholesterol moiety showed significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Enterococcus faecium. On the contrary, the antimycobacterial activity increased with the presence of the terpene unit in the molecule. New quaternary ammonium salt-type compounds with lipophilic cholesterol and terpene moieties were synthesized, yielding new potential disinfectants with broad-spectrum activity. Compounds containing the cholesterol moiety showed significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Enterococcus faecium, whereas compounds with the terpene unit displayed increased antimycobacterial activity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Karabanovich G.,Charles University | Roh J.,Charles University | Soukup O.,University of Hradec Kralove | Pavkova I.,University of Hradec Kralove | And 7 more authors.
MedChemComm | Year: 2015

Tetrazole derivatives containing nitro substituents have been identified as promising antitubercular agents. In this study, the antitubercular potency, selectivity and toxicity of tetrazole 1,5- and 2,5-regioisomers were examined. We prepared a series of 1- and 2-alkyl-5-benzylsulfanyl-2H-tetrazoles and their selenium analogs with various nitro group substitutions. These 1,5- and 2,5-regioisomers were isolated and unambiguously identified using 1H and/or 13C NMR. Among the prepared compounds, 1- and 2-alkyl-5-[(3,5-dinitrobenzyl)sulfanyl]-2H-tetrazole derivatives and their selenium bioisosteres showed the highest antimycobacterial activity, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of approximately 1 μM (0.37-0.46 μg mL-1) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis CNCTC My 331/88. The 2-alkyl regioisomers exhibited consistently higher antimycobacterial activity and lower in vitro toxicity against a mammalian cell line compared to the 1-alkyl isomers. The antimycobacterial activity of the 2-alkyl regioisomers was less influenced by the type of alkyl substituent in contrast to 1-alkyl isomers. Furthermore, the 3,5-dinitrobenzyl moiety per se is not the carrier of mutagenicity. These findings encourage further optimization of the 2-alkyl chain to improve the pharmacokinetic properties and toxicity of 2-alkyl-5-[(3,5-dinitrobenzyl)sulfanyl]-2H-tetrazole lead compounds. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. Source

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