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Ravichandran R.,Regional Institute of Education NCERT
International Journal of Green Nanotechnology: Physics and Chemistry | Year: 2010

Nanoscience and nanotechnology are new frontiers of this century and food nanotechnology is an emerging technology. Their applications to the agriculture and food sector are relatively recent compared with their use in drug delivery and pharmaceuticals. Many scientists and engineers have recognized well the potential of nanotechnology to lead all the food industries in the 21st century. Even though successful applications of nanotechnology to foods are still limited, some basic concepts based on nanoscale have been established well. In food engineering field, two major applications related to nanotechnology, that is, food nanosensing and food nanostructured ingredients are being expected. In the former field, better food quality and safety evaluation can be achieved by using nanotechnology. Advances in technologies, such as DNA microarrays, microelectromechanical systems, and microfluidics, will enable the realization of the potential of nanotechnology for food applications. In the latter, food processing can be largely improved in the aspects of smart delivery of nutrients, bioseparation of proteins, rapid sampling of biological and chemical contaminants, nanoencapsulation of nutraceuticals, solubilization, delivery, and color in food systems; these being some of the emerging topics of nanotechnology for food and agriculture. Meanwhile, food nanotechnology as a new technology is requiring reviews of potentially adverse effects as well as many positive effects. In this review, we intended to cover some of the developments in nanotechnology and their applicability to food and nutraceuticals systems. It presents some of the nanoscale-sized structures that are uniquely relevant to the food industry, the different food manufacturing techniques that could benefit from nanotechnology, and nanotechnology's applicability to the formulation and storage of food, together with identifying the outstanding challenges. © 2009 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Ravichandran R.,Regional Institute of Education NCERT
International Journal of Nano and Biomaterials | Year: 2010

Curcumin is known to have both chemopreventive and therapeutic properties and has got tremendous commercial value. However, it has potential limitation because of its very low aqueous solubility and stability. Poorly water-soluble compounds like curcumin with dissolution limited bioavailability need novel approaches for enhancement of bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. The use of nanosuspension approach offers an opportunity to address the issues associated with such molecules. High pressure homogenization technique can be employed to produce drug nanocrystals with a number of advantages in comparison to other techniques. The present study shows the feasibility of formulating a stable formulation of curcumin with minimum particle size through high pressure homogenisation technique. Different stabilisers were tried to get stable formulations. The influence of number of homogenising cycles on particle size was studied. Physico-chemical characterisation and stability of nanosuspensions were also studied. Selected nanosuspension formulations were lyophilised to convert into solid dosage forms. These studies had indicated that the aqueous dispersion of curcumin nanoparticles could be converted into stable solid dosage forms with out affecting the size on reconstitution. Copyright © 2010 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. Source


Ravichandran R.,Regional Institute of Education NCERT
International Journal of Nanoparticles | Year: 2010

Lyophilised gymnemic acids nanocrystals were intensively evaluated regarding their physicochemical properties with respect to particle size analyses, crystallinity, kinetic solubility and dissolution behaviour, and compared with microcrystals. The particle size was determined by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and laser diffraction (LD). DSC and X-ray diffraction were used to study the crystalline state of gymnemic acids nanocrystals. The superior physicochemical properties observed with gymnemic acids nanocrystals over microcrystals should overcome the absorption problem in the gastrointestinal tract and increase the bioavailability. Copyright © 2010 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. Source


Ravichandran R.,Regional Institute of Education NCERT
International Journal of Nanoparticles | Year: 2010

Integration of ayurveda and pharmaceutical technological advances are being used to make effective drug delivery system of gymnemic acids. In recent years, there has been a considerable interest in the development of novel drug delivery systems using nanotechnology. In the present work an attempt has been made to prepare and formulate gymnemic acids nanocrystal in order to improve the dissolution velocity and enhance the bioavailability. The gymnemic acids nanosuspension prepared was dried by lyophilisation and characterised for its physico-chemical properties and the re-dispersion of it in water was intensively investigated. Morphology of the particles was also analysed. Finally, gymnemic acids nanocrystal-loaded tablets were developed using direct compression and its dissolution behaviour was evaluated in various dispersion media. The improved dissolution behaviour of the gymnemic acids nanocrystal-loaded tablet should lead to a better bioavailability of the poorly soluble gymnemic acids in the body. Copyright © 2010 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. Source


Ravichandran R.,Regional Institute of Education NCERT
International Journal of Green Nanotechnology: Biomedicine | Year: 2010

During the last 10 years, the formulation of drugs as nanocrystals has rapidly evolved into a mature drug delivery strategy, with currently five products on the market. The major characteristic of these systems is the rapid dissolution velocity, enabling bioavailability enhancement after oral administration. Albendazole, a lipophilic anthelmintic drug, belongs to biopharmaceutical classification system type II: low aqueous solubility and bioavailability and high permeability. This study describes the bioefficacy of an albendazole nanosuspension tablet achieved by high-pressure homogenization. The aim was to obtain a stable nanosuspension with an increased drug saturation solubility and dissolution velocity. Pharmacokinetics of optimized albendazole nanosuspensions after oral administration to rats was studied. Bioavailability of albendazole nanosuspensions were 2-3-fold compared with that of market product. These results indicate the potential of nanosuspension in improvement of oral bioavailability of lipophilic drugs such as albendazole. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

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