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Michalska M.M.,Regional Hospital in Kalisz | Samulak D.,Regional Hospital in Kalisz | Samulak D.,Poznan University of Medical Sciences | Romanowicz H.,University of Lodz | Smolarz B.,University of Lodz
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics | Year: 2014

Methods: This report describes studies of the distribution of genotypes and the frequency of alleles of the G135C (rs1801320) and G172T (rs1801321) RAD51 polymorphism in 630 paraffin-embedded samples of tumor tissue from patients with endometrial cancer. DNA from 630 normal endometrial tissues served as control. RAD51 polymorphisms were determined by PCR–RFLP.Results: In the present work, a relationship was identified between RAD51 G135C polymorphism and the incidence of endometrial cancer. Endometrial cancer patients had an overrepresentation of 135C allele. The 135C/C homozygous variant increased cancer risk. A tendency towards a decreased risk of endometrial cancer was observed with the occurrence of combined G135C–G172G genotype of RAD51 polymorphism. An association was confirmed between RAD51 G135C and G172T polymorphisms and endometrial cancer progression, assessed by the histological grades.Conclusions: The results support the hypothesis that RAD51 G135C and G172T polymorphisms may be associated with endometrial cancer occurrence and/or progression.Purpose: Many of the studies have analyzed cell repair capabilities, following cancer development. The cellular reaction to DNA damaging agents can modulate the susceptibility to various tumors. This reaction is mainly determined by DNA repair efficacy which, in turn, may be influenced by the variability of DNA repair genes, expressed by their polymorphisms. © 2014, The Author(s).


Smolarz B.,University of Lodz | Makowska M.,University of Lodz | Samulak D.,Regional Hospital in Kalisz | Samulak D.,Poznan University of Medical Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Tumor Biology | Year: 2014

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) refers to about 15-20 % of all breast cancer cases. It is characterized by worse clinical outcome, poor prognosis, and absence of prognostic indicators. Several polymorphisms in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) and base excision repair (BER) gene have been extensively studied in association with various human cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the hOGG1-Ser326Cys (rs13181), XRCC1-Arg194Trp (rs1799782), and ERCC2-Lys751Gln (rs13181) gene polymorphisms with clinical parameters and the risk for development of triple-negative breast cancer. Our research included 70 patients with TNBC and 70 healthy controls. Gene polymorphisms were genotyped by the PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) method. The genotype distributions were contrasted by the chi-square test, and the significance of the polymorphism was assessed by multiple logistic regression producing odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). In the present work, a relationship was identified between ERCC2-Lys751Gln polymorphism and the incidence of triple-negative breast cancer. An association was observed between triple-negative breast carcinoma occurrence and the presence of Gln/Gln genotype (OR = 5.71 (2.12-5.43), p = 0.0007). A tendency for an increased risk of TNBC was detected with the occurrence of 751Gln allele of ERCC2 polymorphism. No significant associations between Ser326Cys and Arg194Trp genotype and TNBC were observed. We suggest that the Lys751Gln polymorphism of the ERCC2 gene may be risk factors for triple-negative breast cancer development in Polish women. © 2014 The Author(s).


Samulak D.,Poznan University of Medical Sciences | Samulak D.,Regional Hospital in Kalisz | Grosman-Dziewiszek P.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Michalska M.M.,Regional Hospital in Kalisz | And 4 more authors.
Pathology and Oncology Research | Year: 2014

Endometrial cancer belongs to the commonest malignancy in females after breast cancer, malignant neoplasm of female genitals in Europe and North America but there is still not significant improvement as far as the curability of this neoplasm is concerned, especially its advanced forms. That is why there is need to define new factors that could be not only diagnostic but also predictve factors. In present study we analyzed the mRNA PTEN expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) in 123 women of endometrial carcinoma and 14 women of control group. Moreover we assessed oestrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PgR) in all cases. We defined the correlation between expression of PTEN gene and receptors and between PTEN expression and maturity grade of cancer. Neoplasm advancement grade G1 was diagnosed in 82.11% of patients (n = 101), G2 in 9.76% of patients (n = 12) and G3 in 8.13% of patients (n = 10). Presence of ER and PgR and decreased expression of PTEN gene was found in majority of patients with endometrial cancer (79.12% and 59.34% respectively) and the most numerous group was with weak expression of ER and strong expression of PgR. There was no statistically significant difference in gene expression depending on receptors expression nor maturity grade of cancer (p >0.05). Evaluation of expression of PTEN gene may turn out to be a very useful tool aimed at qualifying patients for different therapies of endometrial cancer and at searching of new diagnostic and therapeutic methods of this cancer independently on its receptor status nor maturity grade of cancer. © The Author(s) 2013.


Smolarz B.,University of Lodz | Makowska M.,University of Lodz | Samulak D.,Regional Hospital in Kalisz | Samulak D.,Poznan University of Medical Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Polish Journal of Pathology | Year: 2013

Genetic polymorphisms in the RAD51 gene may be associated with increased cancer risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate associations between the risk of ovarian cancer and 135G>C (rs1801320) and 172G>T (rs1801321) polymorphisms in the RAD51 gene. We analysed the distribution of genotypes and frequency of alleles of the RAD51 polymorphisms in 210 women with ovarian cancer and 210 healthy controls. Both polymorphisms were genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (PCR-RFLP). In the present study only 135G>C polymorphism of the RAD51 gene was associated with ovarian cancer risk. The distribution of genotypes for 135G>C in ovarian cancer patients vs. controls was: 20% vs. 30% for G/G, 22% vs. 47% for G/C, and 58%vs. 23%for C/C genotype, respectively.We found evidence of an increased ovarian cancer risk in C/C homozygotes but not in heterozygotes. The 135C allele of RAD51 increased cancer risk. In the present work we demonstrated a significant positive association between the RAD51 135G>C polymorphism and ovarian carcinoma in Poland. However, this gene requires further understanding of its interaction with other genes involved in tumour development.


Michalska M.M.,Regional Hospital in Kalisz | Samulak D.,Regional Hospital in Kalisz | Samulak D.,Poznan University of Medical Sciences | Romanowicz H.,Regional Hospital in Glowno | Smolarz B.,University of Lodz
Pathology and Oncology Research | Year: 2015

Double strand DNA breaks are the most dangerous DNA damage which, if non-repaired or misrepaired, may result in genomic instability, cancer transformation or cell death. RAD51 and XRCC2 encode proteins that are important for the repair of double-strand DNA breaks by homologous recombination. Therefore, genetic variability in these genes may contribute to the occurrence and progression of triple-negative breast cancer. The polymorphisms of the XRCC2 gene -41657C/T (rs718282) and of the RAD51 gene, −172G/T (rs1801321), were investigated by PCR-RFLP in 70 patients with triple-negative breast cancer and 70 age- and sex matched non-cancer controls. The obtained results demonstrated a significant positive association between the RAD51 T/T genotype and TNBC, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 4.94 (p = 0.001). The homozygous T/T genotype was found in 60 % of TNBC cases and in 14 % of the used controls. Variant 172 T allele of RAD51 increased cancer risk (OR = 2.81 (1.72–4.58), p <.0001). No significant associations were observed between -41657C/T genotype of XRCC2 and the incidence of TNBC. There were no significant differences between the distribution of XRCC2 -41657C/T genotypes in the subgroups assigned to histological grades. The obtained results indicate that the polymorphism of RAD51, but not of XRCC2 gene, may be positively associated with the incidence of triple-negative breast carcinoma in the population of Polish women. © 2015, The Author(s).


Samulak D.,Regional Hospital in Kalisz | Samulak D.,Poznan University of Medical Sciences | Wilczak M.,Poznan University of Medical Sciences | Michalska M.M.,Regional Hospital in Kalisz | Pieta B.,Poznan University of Medical Sciences
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics | Year: 2011

Purpose: The aim was to identify the advantages and disadvantages of using bipolar coagulation forceps in vaginal hysterectomy and to compare the effects of this method with those of the conventional technique. Methods: A group of 30 patients was operated on with bipolar coagulation forceps and the next 30 were operated on using the traditional method. The following parameters were observed: duration of procedure, blood loss, complications, postoperative pain, hospitalization time and cost of treatment. Results: The duration of the surgical procedure and hospitalization time were similar in both groups. Blood loss was lower in the BiClamp group. There were no serious complications in either group. In one case with BiClamp, laparotomy was performed to stop persistent bleeding; the after-effects of the laparotomy were not statistically significant. The patients in the BiClamp group reported less pain, experienced shorter recuperation times and incurred lower treatment costs. Conclusions: The BiClamp technique is a good alternative to traditional hysterectomy methods as it causes lower blood loss during surgery, causes less post-operative pain and is economically more favorable for the patient and hospital. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


PubMed | Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Regional Hospital in Kalisz and University of Lodz
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Experimental and molecular pathology | Year: 2016

The variability, perceived in DNA repair genes, may be of clinical importance for evaluation of the risk of occurrence of a given type of cancer, its prophylactics and therapy. The aim of the present work was to evaluate associations between the risk of ovarian cancer and polymorphisms in the genes, encoding for two key proteins of homologous recombination: XRCC2 Arg188His (c. 563 G>A; rs3218536) and XRCC3 Thr241Met (c. 722 C>T; rs861539). The study consisted of 700 patients with ovarian cancer and 700 healthy subjects. Analysis of the gene polymorphisms was performed using PCR-RFLP (restriction length fragment polymorphism). We found a statistically significant increase of the 188His allele frequency (OR=4.01; 95% CI=3.40-4.72; p<.0001) of XRCC2 in ovarian cancer compared to healthy controls. There were no differences in the genotype and allele distributions and odds ratios of the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism between patient and control groups. Association of these genetic polymorphisms with histological grading showed increased XRCC2 188Arg/His (OR=33.0; 95% CI=14.51-75.05; p<.0001) and 188His/His genotypes (OR=9.37; 95% CI=4.79-18.32; p<.0001) and XRCC3 241Thr/Met (OR=24.28; 95% CI=12.38-47.61; p<.0001) and 241Met/Met genotype frequencies (OR=17.00; 95% CI=8.42-34.28; p<.0001) in grading 1 (G1) as well as 188His (OR=2.78; 95% CI=2.11-3.69; p<.0001) and 241Met allele overrepresentation (OR=2.59; 95% CI=2.08-3.22; p<.0001) in G1 ovarian patients. Finally, with clinical FIGO staging under evaluation, an increase in XRCC2 188His/His homozygote and 188Arg/His heterozygote frequencies in staging I (SI) and XRCC3 Thr/Met heterozygote frequencies in SI was observed. The obtained results indicate that XRCC2 Arg188His and XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphisms may be positively associated with the incidence of ovarian carcinoma in the population of Polish women.


PubMed | Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Regional Hospital in Kalisz and University of Lodz
Type: | Journal: European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology | Year: 2016

The reported study was designed to explore associations between the ERCC2- R156R gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and the risk of ovarian cancer.The R156R (C to A, rs238406) polymorphism of ERCC2 gene was investigated by the PCR-RFLP technique in 400 patients with ovarian carcinoma and 400 age- and sex matched non-cancer controls. Blood samples were obtained from patients treated at the Department of Surgical Gynaecology and Gynaecologic Oncology, Institute of Polish Mothers Memorial Hospital between the years 2000 and 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each genotype and allele.Genotype distribution of R156R polymorphism of ERCC2 gene was compared between the patients and controls with significant differences (p<0.05) between the two investigated groups. A possible association was observed between ovarian cancer and the presence of A/A genotype (OR 3.30 95% CI 2.26-4.82, p<0.0001). The variant A allele of ERCC2 increased the risk of ovarian cancer (OR 2.08 95 % CI 1.70-2.54, p<0.0001). A relationship was confirmed between ERCC2 R156R polymorphism and ovarian cancer progression, assessed by the degree of histological grades and FIGO staging (p<0.05).This is the first study, linking R156R polymorphism of ERCC2 gene with ovarian carcinoma incidence. In conclusion, ERCC2- R156R polymorphism may be connected with the susceptibility to ovarian cancer.


PubMed | Regional Hospital in Kalisz and University of Lodz
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine | Year: 2016

Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most frequent malignant neoplasm of female genitals and the fourth most frequent malignant neoplasm in Polish women, after breast, colorectal and lung cancer. Despite intensive research, EC aetiology remains unknown. The variability, perceived in DNA repair genes, may be of clinical importance for evaluation of the risk of occurrence of a given type of cancer, its prophylactics and therapy. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between gene polymorphism R156R (C to A, rs238406) of ERCC2 gene and modulation of the risk of endometrial cancer in Poland. Our research included 1360 patients with EC and 1320 healthy controls. The genotype analysis of ERCC2 gene polymorphism was performed using the PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). In the presented study, a relationship was identified between R156R polymorphism of the ERCC2 gene and the incidence of endometrial cancer. An association was observed between EC occurrence and the presence of A/A genotype (odds ratio (OR) 9.71, 95% Cl 7.53-12.50, p<.0001). A tendency for an increased risk of endometrial cancer was detected with the occurrence of A allele of ERCC2 polymorphism (OR=5.95, 95% Cl 5.23-6.78, p<.0001). A relationship was confirmed between R156R polymorphism and endometrial cancer progression, assessed by histological grades. On the basis of these results, we conclude that ERCC2 gene polymorphism R156R may be associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer.


Samulak D.,Regional Hospital in Kalisz
Archives of gynecology and obstetrics | Year: 2011

The aim was to evaluate the utility of ultrasonographic examinations, such as the Doppler technique, in diagnosing women with postmenopausal bleeding. Specifically, maximum end-diastolic velocity of blood flow (MEDV), time-averaged maximum velocity of blood flow (TAMXV) and peak systolic velocity of blood flow (PSV) were evaluated. Data were obtained and analyzed from a group of 100 female patients diagnosed and treated because of abnormal bleeding from the genitals in the Gynecological-Obstetrics Clinical Hospital of Poznan University of Medical Sciences. The following packages were used for statistic analyses: STATISTICA v 7.1 (StatSoft, Inc. 2005), StatXACT v.5.0.3, CYTEL SOFTWARE CORPORATION and Analyse-it Software v.1.68. The parameters evaluated were highest in the carcinoma group, lower when proliferation was diagnosed and the lowest in the control group. Transvaginal ultrasonography diagnostics using the Doppler technique was found to play an important role in the diagnostic process of pathologies within the endometrium.

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