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Avison A.,Regional Center Node | Avison A.,University of Manchester | Quinn L.J.,University of Manchester | Quinn L.J.,Millennium Center | And 11 more authors.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2016

We present the results of the first complete unbaised survey of theGalactic plane for 6035-MHz excited-state hydroxyl (ex-OH) masers undertaken as part of the methanol multibeam (MMB) survey. These observations cover the Galactic longitude ranges 186° < l < 60° including the Galactic Centre. We report the detection of 127 ex-OH masers within the survey region, 47 being new sources. The positions of new detections were determined from interferometric observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We discuss the association of 6035-MHzmasers in our survey with the 6668-MHzmasers from theMMBSurvey, finding 37 likely CH3OH-ex-OH maser pairs with physical separations of ≤0.03 pc and 55 pairings separated by ≤0.1 pc. Using these we calculate for the first time an ex-OH maser lifetime of between 3.3 × 103 and 8.3 × 103 yr. We also discuss the variability of the 6035-MHz masers and detection rates of counterpart 6030-MHz ex-OH masers (28 per cent of our sample having detection at both frequencies). © 2016 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Remy-Ruyer A.,University Paris - Sud | Madden S.C.,University Paris - Sud | Galliano F.,University Paris - Sud | Hony S.,University Paris - Sud | And 20 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2013

Context. We present new photometric data from our Herschel guaranteed time key programme, the Dwarf Galaxy Survey (DGS), dedicated to the observation of the gas and dust in low-metallicity environments. A total of 48 dwarf galaxies were observed with the PACS and SPIRE instruments onboard the Herschel Space Observatory at 70, 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm. Aims. The goal of this paper is to provide reliable far-infrared (FIR) photometry for the DGS sample and to analyse the FIR/submillimetre (submm) behaviour of the DGS galaxies. We focus on a systematic comparison of the derived FIR properties (FIR luminosity, LFIR, dust mass, Mdust, dust temperature, T, emissivity index, β) with more metal-rich galaxies and investigate the detection of a potential submm excess. Methods. The data reduction method is adapted for each galaxy in order to derive the most reliable photometry from the final maps. The derived PACS flux densities are compared with the Spitzer MIPS 70 and 160 μm bands. We use colour-colour diagrams to analyse the FIR/submm behaviour of the DGS galaxies and modified blackbody fitting procedures to determine their dust properties. To study the variation in these dust properties with metallicity, we also include galaxies from the Herschel KINGFISH sample, which contains more metal-rich environments, totalling 109 galaxies. Results. The location of the DGS galaxies on Herschel colour-colour diagrams highlights the differences in dust grain properties and/or global environments of low-metallicity dwarf galaxies. The dust in DGS galaxies is generally warmer than in KINGFISH galaxies (TDGS ~ 32 K and TKINGFISH ~ 23 K). The emissivity index, β, is ~1.7 in the DGS, however metallicity does not make a strong effect on β. The proportion of dust mass relative to stellar mass is lower in low-metallicity galaxies: Mdust/Mstar ~ 0.02% for the DGS versus 0.1% for KINGFISH. However, per unit dust mass, dwarf galaxies emit about six times more in the FIR/submm than higher metallicity galaxies. Out of the 22 DGS galaxies detected at 500 μm, about 41% present an excess in the submm beyond the explanation of our dust SED model, and this excess can go up to 150% above the prediction from the model. The excess mainly appears in lower metallicity galaxies (12 + log(O/H) 8.3), and the strongest excesses are detected in the most metal-poor galaxies. However, we also stress the need for observations longwards of the Herschel wavelengths to detect any submm excess appearing beyond 500 μm. © ESO, 2013.

Breen S.L.,CSIRO | Ellingsen S.P.,University of Tasmania | Caswell J.L.,CSIRO | Green J.A.,CSIRO | And 9 more authors.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2014

We present the third instalment of a series of catalogues presenting 12.2-GHz methanol maser observations made towards each of the 6.7-GHz methanol masers detected in the Methanol Multibeam (MMB) Survey. The current portion of the catalogue includes the Galactic longitude region 10° to 20°, where we detect 47 12.2-GHz methanol masers towards 99 6.7-GHz targets. We compare the occurrence of 12.2-GHz methanol masers with water maser emission, for which all 6.7-GHz methanol masers in the 6° to 20° longitude range have now been searched. We suggest that the water masers follow a more complicated evolutionary scenario than has been found for the methanol and OH masers, likely due to their different pumping mechanisms. Comparisons of the 6.7-GHz methanol to OH maser peak flux density ratio and the luminosity of the associated 12.2-GHz sources suggests that the 12.2-GHz maser luminosity begins to decline around the time that an OH maser becomes detectable. © 2014 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Bendo G.J.,University of Manchester | Bendo G.J.,Regional Center Node | Beswick R.J.,University of Manchester | Beswick R.J.,Regional Center Node | And 6 more authors.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters | Year: 2015

We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of 99.02 GHz free- free and H40α emission from the centre of the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 253.We calculate electron temperatures of 3700-4500 K for the photoionized gas, which agrees with previous measurements. We measure a photoionizing photon production rate of (3.2 ± 0.2) × 1053 s-1 and a star formation rate of 1.73 ± 0.12 M⊙ yr-1 within the central 20 × 10 arcsec, which fall within the broad range of measurements from previous millimetre and radio observations but which are better constrained. We also demonstrate that the dust opacities are ~3 dex higher than inferred from previous near-infrared data, which illustrates the benefits of using millimetre star formation tracers in very dusty sources. © 2015 The Authors.

Remy-Ruyer A.,University Paris Diderot | Madden S.C.,University Paris Diderot | Galliano F.,University Paris Diderot | Galametz M.,University of Cambridge | And 17 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2014

Aims. The goal of this paper is to analyse the behaviour of the gas-to-dust mass ratio (G/D) of local Universe galaxies over a wide metallicity range.We especially focus on the low-metallicity part of the G/D vs metallicity relation and investigate several explanations for the observed relation and scatter. Methods. We assembled a total of 126 galaxies, covering a 2 dex metallicity range and with 30% of the sample with 12 + log(O/H) ≤ 8:0. We homogeneously determined the dust masses with a semi-empirical dust model including submm constraints. The atomic and molecular gas masses have been compiled from the literature. We used two XCO scenarios to estimate the molecular gas mass: the Galactic conversion factor, XCO;MW, and a XCO that depends on the metallicity XCO;Z (∝Z-2). We modelled the observed trend of the G/D with metallicity using two simple power laws (slope of -1 and free) and a broken power law. Correlations with morphological type, stellar masses, star formation rates, and specific star formation rates are also discussed.We then compared the observed evolution of the G/D with predictions from several chemical evolution models and explored di erent physical explanations for the observed scatter in the G/D values. Results. We find that out of the five tested galactic parameters, metallicity is the main physical property of the galaxy driving the observed G/D. The G/D versus metallicity relation cannot be represented by a single power law with a slope of -1 over the whole metallicity range. The observed trend is steeper for metallicities lower than ~8.0. A large scatter is observed in the G/D values for a given metallicity: in metallicity bins of ~0.1 dex, the dispersion around the mean value is ~0.37 dex. On average, the broken power law reproduces the observed G/D best compared to the two power laws (slope of -1 or free) and provides estimates of the G/D that are accurate to a factor of 1.6. The good agreement of observed values of the G/D and its scatter with respect to metallicity with the predicted values of the three tested chemical evolution models allows us to infer that the scatter in the relation is intrinsic to galactic properties, reflecting the di erent star formation histories, dust destruction efficiencies, dust grain size distributions, and chemical compositions across the sample. Conclusions. Our results show that the chemical evolution of low-metallicity galaxies, traced by their G/D, strongly depends on their local internal conditions and individual histories. The large scatter in the observed G/D at a given metallicity reflects the impact of various processes occurring during the evolution of a galaxy. Despite the numerous degeneracies a ecting them, disentangling these various processes is now the next step. © ESO 2014.

Peretto N.,University Paris Diderot | Peretto N.,University of Cardiff | Fuller G.A.,University of Manchester | Fuller G.A.,Regional Center Node | And 15 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2013

The relative importance of primordial molecular cloud fragmentation versus large-scale accretion still remains to be assessed in the context of massive core/star formation. Studying the kinematics of the dense gas surrounding massive-star progenitors can tell us the extent to which large-scale flow of material impacts the growth in mass of star-forming cores. Here we present a comprehensive dataset of the 5500(±800) M· infrared dark cloud SDC335.579-0.272 (hereafter SDC335), which exhibits a network of cold, dense, parsec-long filaments. Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle 0 observations reveal two massive star-forming cores, MM1 and MM2, sitting at the centre of SDC335 where the filaments intersect. With a gas mass of 545( -385 +770) M· contained within a source diameter of 0.05 pc, MM1 is one of the most massive, compact protostellar cores ever observed in the Galaxy. As a whole, SDC335 could potentially form an OB cluster similar to the Trapezium cluster in Orion. ALMA and Mopra single-dish observations of the SDC335 dense gas furthermore reveal that the kinematics of this hub-filament system are consistent with a global collapse of the cloud. These molecular-line data point towards an infall velocity Vinf = 0.7(± 0.2) km s-1, and a total mass infall rate M inf ‰ 2.5(±1.0) × 10-3 M · yr-1 towards the central pc-size region of SDC335. This infall rate brings 750(±300) M· of gas to the centre of the cloud per free-fall time (tff = 3 × 10 5 yr). This is enough to double the mass already present in the central pc-size region in 3.5-1.0 +2.2 × t ff. These values suggest that the global collapse of SDC335 over the past million year resulted in the formation of an early O-type star progenitor at the centre of the cloud's gravitational potential well. © 2013 ESO.

Avison A.,University of Manchester | Avison A.,Regional Center Node | Peretto N.,University of Cardiff | Fuller G.A.,University of Manchester | And 4 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2015

Aims. Recent ALMA observations identified one of the most massive star-forming cores yet observed in the Milky Way: SDC335-MM1, within the infrared dark cloud SDC335.579-0.292. Along with an accompanying core MM2, SDC335 appears to be in the early stages of its star formation process. We aim to constrain the properties of the stars forming within these two massive millimetre sources. Methods. Observations of SDC335 at 6, 8, 23 and 25 GHz were made with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We report the results of these continuum measurements, which combined with archival data, allow us to build and analyse the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the compact sources in SDC335. Results. Three hyper-compact Hii regions within SDC335 are identified, two of which are within the MM1 core. For each HCHii region, we fit a free-free emission curve to the data, providing the derivation of the sources' emission measure, ionising photon flux, and electron density. Using these physical properties we assign each HCHii region a zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) spectral type, finding two protostars with characteristics of spectral type B1.5 and one with a lower limit of B1-B1.5. Ancillary data from infrared to mm wavelength are used to construct free-free component subtracted SEDs for the mm-cores, which allows us to calculate the bolometric luminosities and revise the previous gas mass estimates. Conclusions. The measured luminosities for the two mm-cores are lower than expected from accreting sources displaying characteristics of the ZAMS spectral type assigned to them. The protostars are still actively accreting, suggesting that a mechanism is limiting the accretion luminosity. We present the case for two different mechanisms capable of causing lower than expected accretion luminosity. Finally, using the ZAMS mass values as lower limit constraints, a final stellar population for SDC335 was synthesised finding SDC335 is likely to be in the process of forming a stellar cluster comparable to the Trapezium cluster and NGC 6334 I(N). © ESO, 2015.

Breen S.L.,CSIRO | Ellingsen S.P.,University of Tasmania | Caswell J.L.,CSIRO | Green J.A.,CSIRO | And 8 more authors.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2016

This is the fourth and final instalment of a series of catalogues presenting 12.2-GHz methanol maser observations made towards each of the 6.7-GHz methanol masers detected in the Methanol Multibeam (MMB) survey. This final portion of the survey covers the 20°-60° longitude range, increasing the 12.2-GHz follow-up range to the full MMB coverage of 186° ≥ l ≤ 60° and |b| ≤ 2°. Towards a total of 260 6.7-GHz MMB methanol masers (we were unable to observe five of the MMB sources in this longitude range) we detect 116 12.2-GHz masers counterparts, 64 of which were discovered in this survey. Including data from the literature, we find that there are 12.2-GHz methanol masers towards 47.1 per cent of the 6.7-GHz methanol masers in this portion of the Galaxy. Across the entire MMB survey range, we find a detection rate of 45.3 per cent. We find that the detection rate of 12.2-GHz methanol masers as a function of Galactic longitude is not uniform and there is an excess of masers with broad velocity ranges at longitudes near 30° and 330°. Comparing the occurrence of 12.2-GHz methanol masers with MMB-targeted CO observations has shown that those outflows associated with a 12.2-GHz source have a larger average dynamical time-scale than those associated with only 6.7-GHz methanol masers, supporting the notion that the 12.2-GHz masers are associated with a later phase of high-mass star formation. © 2016 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Hughes T.M.,Ghent University | Foyle K.,McMaster University | Schirm M.R.P.,McMaster University | Parkin T.J.,McMaster University | And 14 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2015

We present Herschel PACS and SPIRE spectroscopy of the most important far-infrared cooling lines in the nearby, edge-on spiral galaxy, NGC 891: [Cii] 158 μm, [Nii] 122, 205 μm, [Oi] 63, 145 μm, and [Oiii] 88 μm. We find that the photoelectric heating efficiency of the gas, traced via the ([Cii]+[Oi]63)/FTIR ratio, varies from a mean of 3.5 × 10-3 in the centre up to 8 × 10-3 at increasing radial and vertical distances in the disc. A decrease in ([Cii]+[Oi]63)/FTIR but constant ([Cii]+[Oi]63)/FPAH with increasing FIR colour suggests that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may become important for gas heating in the central regions. We compare the observed flux of the FIR cooling lines and total IR emission with the predicted flux from a PDR model to determine the gas density, surface temperature and the strength of the incident far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation field, G0. Resolving details on physical scales of ~0.6 kpc, a pixel-by-pixel analysis reveals that the majority of the PDRs in NGC 891's disc have hydrogen densities of 1 < log  (n/ cm-3) < 3.5 experiencing an incident FUV radiation field with strengths of 1.7 < log  G0< 3. Although these values we derive for most of the disc are consistent with the gas properties found in PDRs in the spiral arms and inter-arm regions of M  51, observed radial trends in n and G0 are shown to be sensitive to varying optical thickness in the lines, demonstrating the importance of accurately accounting for optical depth effects when interpreting observations of high inclination systems. Increasing the coverage of our analysis by using an empirical relationship between the MIPS 24 μm and [Nii] 205 μm emission, we estimate an enhancement of the FUV radiation field strength in the far north-eastern side of the disc relative to the rest of the disc that coincides with the above-average star formation rate surface densities and gas-to-dust ratios. However, an accurate interpretation remains difficult due to optical depth effects, confusion along the line-of-sight and observational uncertainties. © ESO, 2015.

Foster J.B.,Boston University | Foster J.B.,Yale University | Mandel K.S.,Imperial College London | Pineda J.E.,Regional Center Node | And 3 more authors.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

We investigate the shape of the extinction law in two 1{ring operator} square fields of the Perseus molecular cloud complex. We combine deep red-optical (r, i and z band) observations obtained using Megacam on the MMT with UKIRT (United Kingdom Infrared Telescope) Infrared Deep Sky Survey near-infrared (J, H and K band) data to measure the colours of background stars. We develop a new hierarchical Bayesian statistical model, including measurement error, intrinsic colour variation, spectral type and dust reddening, to simultaneously infer parameters for individual stars and characteristics of the population. We implement an efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm utilizing generalized Gibbs sampling to compute coherent probabilistic inferences. We find a strong correlation between the extinction (AV) and the slope of the extinction law (parametrized by RV). Because the majority of the extinction towards our stars comes from the Perseus molecular cloud, we interpret this correlation as evidence of grain growth at moderate optical depths. The extinction law changes from the 'diffuse' value of RV ~ 3 to the 'dense cloud' value of RV ~ 5 as the column density rises from AV = 2 to 10 mag. This relationship is similar for the two regions in our study, despite their different physical conditions, suggesting that dust grain growth is a fairly universal process. © 2012 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

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