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Russo L.,Laboratory of Mendelian Diabetes | Iafusco D.,The Second University of Naples | Brescianini S.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Nocerino V.,Laboratory of Mendelian Diabetes | And 16 more authors.
Diabetologia | Year: 2011

Aims/hypothesis: The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic aetiology of permanent diabetes mellitus with onset in the first 12 months of age. Methods: We studied 46 probands with permanent, insulin-requiring diabetes with onset within the first 6 months of life (permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus [PNDM]/monogenic diabetes of infancy [MDI]) (group 1) and eight participants with diabetes diagnosed between 7 and 12 months of age (group 2). KCNJ11, INS and ABCC8 genes were sequentially sequenced in all patients. For those who were negative in the initial screening, we examined ERN1, CHGA, CHGB and NKX6-1 genes and, in selected probands, CACNA1C, GCK, FOXP3, NEUROG3 and CDK4. The incidence rate for PNDM/MDI was calculated using a database of Italian patients collected from 1995 to 2009. Results: In group 1 we found mutations in KCNJ11, INS and ABCC8 genes in 23 (50%), 9 (19.5%) and 4 (8.6%) patients respectively, and a single homozygous mutation in GCK (2.1%). In group 2, we identified one incidence of a KCNJ11 mutation. No genetic defects were detected in other loci. The incidence rate of PNDM/MDI in Italy is estimated to be 1:210,287. Conclusions/interpretation: Genetic mutations were identified in ~75% of non-consanguineous probands with PNDM/MDI, using sequential screening of KCNJ11, INS and ABCC8 genes in infants diagnosed within the first 6 months of age. This percentage decreased to 12% in those with diabetes diagnosed between 7 and 12 months. Patients belonging to the latter group may either carry mutations in genes different from those commonly found in PNDM/MDI or have developed an early-onset form of autoimmune diabetes. © 2011 The Author(s). Source

Morandi A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Morandi A.,Regional Center for Juvenile Diabetes | Maffeis C.,Regional Center for Juvenile Diabetes | Maffeis C.,University of Verona | And 7 more authors.
Obesity | Year: 2010

Minor allele A of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 11391 G/A of ADIPOQ gene (rs17300539) has been consistently associated with higher adiponectin levels in adults and children. The aim of this study was to investigate the metabolic role of this variant in a large cohort of children of European origin. A total of 1,852 children from two general populations in Verona and in Fleurbaix-Laventie and from the Lille childhood obesity cohort, were genotyped and pooled together after checking for the absence of genetic heterogeneity for rs17300539 between Italian and French children. The genotype of rs17300539 was studied in relation to circulating adiponectin levels, BMI, fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin (FSI), insulin resistance index (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA IR)), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. After adjustment for known confounders, rs17300539 GAAA carriers had 1.6νg/ml higher adiponectin levels (P = 6× 10-8) than GG carriers. They also showed higher BMI (B = 0.97, P = 0.015) and higher prevalence of obesity (OR = 1.35 (1.06-1.85), P = 0.015) than GG carriers. Before adjusting for obesity status, GAAA carriers had higher FSI (B = 1.10, P = 0.040) and higher HOMA IR (B = 0.31, P = 0.020) than GG carriers. After adjustment for obesity status, they did not differ from GG carriers for any metabolic parameter, either among obese or nonobese children. The rs17300539-A variant, though consistently associated with higher adiponectin levels, does not exert any appreciable protective metabolic effect in children, either in the presence or absence of obesity. In contrast, this SNP may increase the risk for childhood obesity and related insulin resistance. © 2009 The Obesity Society. Source

Ichimura A.,Kyoto University | Hirasawa A.,Kyoto University | Poulain-Godefroy O.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Poulain-Godefroy O.,University of Lille Nord de France | And 62 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2012

Free fatty acids provide an important energy source as nutrients, and act as signalling molecules in various cellular processes. Several G-protein-coupled receptors have been identified as free-fatty-acid receptors important in physiology as well as in several diseases. GPR120 (also known as O3FAR1) functions as a receptor for unsaturated long-chain free fatty acids and has a critical role in various physiological homeostasis mechanisms such as adipogenesis, regulation of appetite and food preference. Here we show that GPR120-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet develop obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver with decreased adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis and enhanced hepatic lipogenesis. Insulin resistance in such mice is associated with reduced insulin signalling and enhanced inflammation in adipose tissue. In human, we show that GPR120 expression in adipose tissue is significantly higher in obese individuals than in lean controls. GPR120 exon sequencing in obese subjects reveals a deleterious non-synonymous mutation (p.R270H) that inhibits GPR120 signalling activity. Furthermore, the p.R270H variant increases the risk of obesity in European populations. Overall, this study demonstrates that the lipid sensor GPR120 has a key role in sensing dietary fat and, therefore, in the control of energy balance in both humans and rodents. ©2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Froguel P.,Lille 2 University of Health and Law | Froguel P.,Imperial College London | Ndiaye N.C.,University of Lorraine | Bonnefond A.,Lille 2 University of Health and Law | And 30 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Haptoglobin is an acute phase inflammatory marker. Its main function is to bind hemoglobin released from erythrocytes to aid its elimination, and thereby haptoglobin prevents the generation of reactive oxygen species in the blood. Haptoglobin levels have been repeatedly associated with a variety of inflammation-linked infectious and non-infectious diseases, including malaria, tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C, diabetes, carotid atherosclerosis, and acute myocardial infarction. However, a comprehensive genetic assessment of the inter-individual variability of circulating haptoglobin levels has not been conducted so far. We used a genome-wide association study initially conducted in 631 French children followed by a replication in three additional European sample sets and we identified a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs2000999 located in the Haptoglobin gene (HP) as a strong genetic predictor of circulating Haptoglobin levels (P overall = 8.1×10 -59), explaining 45.4% of its genetic variability (11.8% of Hp global variance). The functional relevance of rs2000999 was further demonstrated by its specific association with HP mRNA levels (β = 0.23±0.08, P = 0.007). Finally, SNP rs2000999 was associated with decreased total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in 8,789 European children (P total cholesterol = 0.002 and P LDL = 0.0008). Given the central position of haptoglobin in many inflammation-related metabolic pathways, the relevance of rs2000999 genotyping when evaluating haptoglobin concentration should be further investigated in order to improve its diagnostic/therapeutic and/or prevention impact. © 2012 Froguel et al. Source

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